The Rocket launching T-72The TOS-1-4 Buratino ("Pinocchio") system was first exposed in Chechnya for its use of a terrific 220mm "flame rocket", but was a way more ancient vehicle, developed in concept back in the 1980s. The idea of themobaric or napalm rockets was to create a large cloud of flammable gas, also causing massive explosions in the process to clear out bunkers and fortifications of any kind on the battlefield. TOS acronym meant "heavy flame-thrower system" in Russian. For greater mobility as well as maintenance and repair, it was based on the trusted T-72 main battle tank chassis, fitted with a fully traversible and elevating twin or single 122 mm standard rocket launcher rack. Production remained ellusive, but the vehicle was still modernized and declined into the TOS-1A version from 2002, also widely exported.
Development of the TOS-1
Shikhany NBC Exercise 2018, TOS-1A in action
The possibility of a weighty short-range MLRS to send off rockets furnished with combustible and thermobaric warheads emerged in the last part of the 1970s. The battle framework comprising of the battle vehicle, rockets, and stacking vehicle was created in mid 1980s at KBTM in Omsk and was named TOS-1, staying a mysterious advancement for quite a while.
The TOS-1 Buratino is planned to draw in military faculty, gear, and structures, including braced developments. The epithet "Buratino" starts with the name of the saint of a Russian retelling of the Pinocchio story (by Alexey Tolstoy), given the impression of the enormous "nose" of the launcher. The battle vehicle acts inside the battle request of infantry and tanks. The huge mass of the launcher and the requirement for an undeniable degree of insurance [due to the moderately short scope of 3,500 m (11,500 ft)] decided the utilization of the skeleton of the T-72 principle fight tank. The TZM reloading vehicle was based on the undercarriage of a KrAZ-255B crosscountry truck and outfitted with a crane for stacking/dumping of the launcher. Creation of KrAZ-255B has authoritatively halted in 1994. Subsequently TZM-T for later Soltsepyok was made in view of the suspension of a T-72 variety T-72A.
The TOS-1 weighty flamethrower framework is expected for direct fire backing of propelling infantry and primary fight tanks, and moves in their battle orders. It is intended to draw in military work force, strongholds and light protected vehicles. The weighty flamethrower framework is by and large like numerous send off rocket frameworks, but fires various sorts of rockets and has more limited terminating range. The TOS-1 was created in the mid 1980s and was effectively utilized by the Soviet Army in Afghanistan and later by the Russian powers in Chechnya. It is nicknamed the Buratino. It appears to be that the first TOS-1 weighty flamethrower framework was utilized distinctly for preliminaries and assessment. It was never created in amount. Additionally the first TOS-1 was rarely traded.
design of the TOS-1
The TOS-1A Solntsepyok (Солнцепёк ("Blazing Sun")) system consists of the following items:
The "battle vehicle" BM-1, Object 634B is an altered T-72A fitted with a rack fitted with 24 tubes for unguided thermobaric rockets. They can be fired in succession over 6 to 12 seconds. This is done via a fire control system comprising a ballistic CP, a pointing sight and an 1D14 laser range locater. The other standard hardware is a TKN-3A sight for the commander, a GPK-59 navigation system, a R-163-50U radio unit, a R-174 radio unit, a 902G smoke launcher, with four barrels for concealment. The 3-men crew had personal weapons, nominally three AKS-74 assault rifle, a single RPKS-74, and three RPG-26s, plus 10 F-1 hand explosives ensuring good defence against all threat, infantry, tanks or airborne. The BM-1 chassis is otherwise similar to the T-72 tank with full collective NBC protection, atomatic fire extinguishers fires, plus the faculty to create additional smoke via a sprayer close to the exhaust.
Variant: TZM-TThe TZM-T (Object 563) was developed as a re-supply vehicle, fitted with a 10 kN crane. They carried 2x12 extra rockets in separate racks, plus 400 liters of fuel, giving them a battle weigh of 39 t (86,000 lb). The TZM-T has the same crew and personal armament than the regular TOS-1.
The 122 mm incendiary rockets & launching system
The rockets carried ar of the NURS type (Russian: неуправляемый реактивный снаряд), MO.1.01.04 and MO.1.01.04M. These are 3.3 m (10 ft 10 in) and 3.7 m (12 ft 2 in) long and weighting 173 kg (381 lb) and 217 kg (478 lb) respectively. The first type (TOS-1A) reaches only 2,700 m (8,900 ft), the second 6,000 m (20,000 ft). A few sources add the latter could reach 12 km. The launcher was modernized in 2016, with dynamic stabilization, new motor, and new launcher tibe, different fittings and firing system added from mid-2018.
The rocket mounts a combustible or a thermobaric warhead. The zone of guaranteed annihilation from a Buratino salvo is 200 x 400 meters. The authority assignment of the Buratino is the TOS-1. The thermobaric warhead is loaded up with a flammable fluid. The fluid is no doubt loaded up with powdered tetranite. At the point when the warhead detonates, the fluid is disintegrated making a spray cloud. At the point when the cloud blends in with oxygen, it explodes, first making a high temperature haze of fire followed by a devastating overpressure.
The huge mass of the aide tube pack with shells needed to have an enormous conveying limit body, and a moderately little viable reach (from 400-600 up to 4500 m) - a specific degree of insurance all through the conflict machine, which again gauging it. Accordingly, the mass of the battle vehicle arrives at 46 tons.
Bundle of 30 rails for unguided rockets is mounted in a swinging piece of the launcher on the turntable. All activities to reestablish the establishment on the objective, giving it the necessary rise plot for the group, without leaving the vehicle by sight and power servo drives.
A precarious flight way to the objective shells require exact metering of shooting conditions and the production of an extraordinary discharge control framework. It incorporates an optical sight , laser range locater , slant sensor and electronic ballistic PC. With the assistance of a laser range locater distance to the still up in the air with a precision of 10 meters. These information are consequently gone into the ballistic PC, computing the vital height of the launcher. The point of heel bundle guides fixed programmed sensor and consequently considered adding machine. Unguided rocket comprises of a head piece of a vehicle (or thermobaric combustible organization), wire and strong fuel fly motor.
About the TOS-1A Solntsepek (2002)
Russian TOS-1A, Russian May parade of 2010
The TOS-1A Solntsepek and TOS-2 Tosochka weighty flamethrower frameworks were displayed to the overall population interestingly on 25 June 2020 in the motorcade on Red Square in Moscow on the 75th Anniversary of Victory Day. Contrasted and TOS-1 "Pinocchio", the quantity of guides on a battle vehicle is diminished from 30 to 24. It is realized that Solntsepek is fit for hitting foe focuses at goes from 3.6 to 6 thousand meters (contingent upon the sort of rockets), and the area of obliteration is from 1 to 2 thousand square meters. m. At the core of the rule of activity of TOC is a volumetric blast, like a blow from a vacuum bomb. TOS-1A was effectively utilized in Syria against fear based oppressors.
The TOS framework comprises of the TOS-1 variant (with 30 containers of 220 mm) and the TOS-1A form (with 24 containers of 220 mm). The two adaptations are mounted on the T-72 tanks and utilize non-directed 3.7-meter-long rocket-pushed projectile launchers (the main TOS-1As started to be conveyed to the Russian Army in late 2017).
The TOS-1As, which are designated "flamethrowers" in the Russian Army, just as the TOS-1s, have been profoundly overhauled, both as far as deadly implements and electronic frameworks, contrasted with the TOS-1s. As far as deadly implement, the TOS-1A currently fuses another launcher, while the refueling vehicles have another crane for lifting freight. The TOS-1A is serving in the Russian Army as far as fire support.
Its utilization did not depend on the utilization of directed rockets, however on the horrendous force of thermobaric rockets. It is basically a means of giving assault fire, not designated fire, however mass fire on the front that covers an area of ??40,000 square meters and up to 6 km, before amicable powers (Battalion level), regardless of whether it shields or assaults.
As per the maker, the TOS-1A makes 100 percent progress in a space of ??40,000 square meters, dependent upon the send off of a sum of 24 rockets. It should be noticed that notwithstanding Russia, TOS-1/ - 1A is additionally in help in Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iraq and Kazakhstan.
The An-124-100 "Ruslan" of "Volga-Dnepr" aircraft showed up at the air terminal in Baghdad on 28 July 2014 with the party of weighty flamethrower framework TOS-1A "Solntsepek" on board, "Vedomosti" composed alluding to the photographs posted on Facebook. As the sources in the guard business affirmed to "Vedomosti", during a visit to Moscow last week the Iraqi appointment headed by the Minister of Defense Saadoun al-Duleymi marked agreements worth more than $ 1 billion for the conveyance of an enormous transfer of arms to Iraq, including four battle machines TOS-1A "Solntsepek", gunnery, mortar weapons and ammo.
Saudi Arabia has taken conveyance of its first TOS-1 various send off rocket framework (MLRS) from Russia. A couple of pictures arose via web-based media on April 9, 2019, seeming to show the TOS-1A MLRS in Saudi Arabia, after a conveyance to the realm. A source in the Russian guard industry, addressing Sputnik International, affirmed the conveyance, saying, "The products of TOS-1A Solntsepek to Saudi Arabia have been begun. The main cluster of the framework has effectively been conveyed to the realm." Further subtleties, for example, the quantity of frameworks on hand or the number conveyed in the primary clump, were not given. The monetary worth of the agreement was not uncovered.
In October 2017, Saudi Arabia marked a Memorandum of Understanding with Russia on securing a scope of Russian military gear, including the TOS-1A. Different frameworks that Riyadh might secure are the Kornet-EM against tank rocket and AGS-30 explosive launcher. Saudi Arabian Military Industries (SAMI) furthermore inked records with Rosoboronexport on the likely neighborhood production of the equipment. SAMI said around then, "With the direction of His Royal Highness the Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense, the two gatherings consented to these arrangements, which are relied upon to assume a urgent part in the development and advancement of the military and military frameworks industry in Saudi Arabia."
Flamethrower units of the Nuclear natural and compound assurance regiment of the Southern Military District performed fire undertakings at the Prudboy range in the Volgograd area in February 2020. The tactical staff worked out arrangement in fight request and control of terminating positions, their designing hardware and cover, groundwork for starting to shoot, surveillance of targets and fire control from rocket flamethrowers "Shmel" and weighty flamethrower frameworks TOS-1A "Solntsepek".
The tactical staff got to know the cutting edge rocket flamethrowers with expanded reach "Shmel-M" on the preparation complex "Yanychar" prior to performing reasonable shooting meetings. The preparation complex "Yanychar" permits mimicking any climate conditions, season and day, just as the speed of moving targets.
Battle terminating occurred inside the structure of reciprocal organization strategic activities, which include in excess of 500 military work force of the Southern Military District, in excess of 200 units of battle and extraordinary gear, including weighty flamethrower frameworks TOS-1A "Solntsepek", T-90A tanks, infantry battling vehicles BMP-3, ordnance different rocket launcher "Cyclone G".
The TOS-1A "Solntsepek" is a powerful mean of thermobaric and volume-exploding ammo. At the point when terminated, the rockets scatter a haze of combustible fluid up high around the objective, and afterward light it. High exactness computation of terminating plot for unguided rockets distributes focuses of the effect point on the region such that makes it conceivable to cover an objective thickly at 6 seconds of full salvo length. It permits stifling adversary dynamic activities for quite a while period at significant regions and 100 percent annihilation of unconcealed foe faculty at the area of 40000 square meters.
TOS-2 Tosochka (2020)
The Tosochka BM-2, otherwise called Armata TOS-2, is a rocket launcher variation expected as the substitution for the Russian Army TOS-1 Buratino. TOS-2 (the R&D work 'Tosochka') is a subsidiary of the TOS-1A 'Solntsepyok' weighty flamethrower framework with further developed execution qualities. TOS-2 "Tosochka" is the "replacement" of the weighty fire tossing framework TOS-1A "Solntsepek" with worked on strategic and specialized qualities. Dissimilar to its ancestor, it depends on the Ural vehicle with expanded conveying limit and crosscountry capacity. Has an expanded send off range for unguided rockets. Pointing, shooting and fire control of the TOS-2 are completely computerized. The machine is outfitted with a crane-controller, so the framework needn't bother with a vehicle stacking machine. Moreover, the TOS-2 is furnished with an electronic insurance framework against high-accuracy weapons.
The TOS-1A Solntsepek and TOS-2 Tosochka weighty flamethrower frameworks were displayed to the overall population interestingly on 25 June 2020 in the motorcade on Red Square in Moscow on the 75th Anniversary of Victory Day. As per Russian architects, the weighty flamethrower frameworks are expected to obliterate light-reinforcement vehicles, crippling of the faculty sent on open spaces or in covers, start fires and distractions by smoke/combustible weapons.
TOS-2 is the replacement of Solntsepek with worked on strategic and specialized attributes, however as opposed to it is made on a foundation of a wheeled body. Past frameworks are utilized to move the case of the T-72 tank, and the Tosochka is mounted on a Ural three-hub rough terrain truck, which builds its portability. Its exhibition attributes have not yet been revealed. This year they intend to move it to guide military activity.
Obviously, the base is a three-pivot rough terrain vehicle Tornado-U, produced at the offices of the Ural Automobile Plant. Past frameworks were situated on a followed stage. In a tactical mission, they were joined by transport-stacking vehicles intended to renew ammo. In the new form, they are not generally needed, since TOS-2 can adapt to this assignment all alone. This is accomplished because of the establishment of an extraordinary crane. Therefore, the expense of working the framework is decreased and its portability increments.
This new-age weighty flamethrower framework was moved to the Ural wheeled all-wheel drive body to build portability. The previous TOSs - Pinocchio and Solntsepek - depended on tank units. It is accounted for that "Tosochka" can re-energize itself utilizing the underlying controller, just as change fire as indicated by the signs of robots and satellite route.
TOS-2 are outfitted with fuel-air unstable weapons that utilization showering of burnable material and blast of the shaped gas cloud. As far as power, they are contrasted and smaller person strategic atomic weapons, however they have no radiation impact. TOS-2 is a short proximity weapon framework that can be utilized against unconcealed and disguised positions. TOS-2's most extreme activity impact of unguided rockets in thermobaric hardware could be reached in the uneven region as a result of impact wave shared juxtaposition and their different reflections from encompassing rocks, causing of ground bones, stone blockages.
The new second-age weighty fire tossing framework Tosochka will start state preliminaries in 2019, overseer of concern Techmash, Vladimir Lepin told Mil.Press Today at the Army-2019 gathering in June 2019. The Fifth International Military and Technical Forum Army-2019 happens in June 25-30 at Patriot Congress and Expo Center, at Alabino Range and Kubinka Airbase. The discussion is open for specialists in June 26-27, and for mass guests in June 28-30.
As per him, Tosochka has better execution qualities, when contrasted with TOS-1A Solntsepyok. "As opposed to its ancestor, Solntsepyok, the new framework depends on the wheeled suspension", added Vladimir Lepin. The creators settled on such choice drawing on the functional experience of track-based flamethrower frameworks in desert zones. In the fall of 2018, overseers of Techmash reported that in 2019 the state preliminaries of Tosochka would wrap up.
The weighty flamethrower frameworks are expected to obliterate light-defensive layer vehicles, crippling of faculty sent on open spaces or in covers, start fires and distractions by smoke/combustible weapons. The frameworks are equipped with fuel-air dangerous weapons that utilization splashing of ignitable material and blast of the shaped gas cloud. As far as power, they are contrasted and dwarf strategic atomic weapons, however have no radiation impact.
According to agent general overseer of JSC NPK Tekhmash Alexander Kochkin: "The distinction between this machine and the past age of TOS-1 and TOS-1A is that it is a genuinely robotized model of weapons. Today, this weapon model is outfitted with route gear, that is, it is fit for working from ill-equipped shooting positions, discharge direction and shoot control frameworks are robotized, and another ammo is being created".
As per Kochkin, the wheeled stage picked by the client - the Ministry of Defense - fundamentally expanded the stock and portability of the machine. The designer accentuated that TOS-2 is furnished with a motorized ammo stacking framework. "A vehicle stacking machine isn't required. Ammo can be welcomed on a normal vehicle, the group prepares the vehicle after a salvo, "Kochkin said. He likewise noticed that the vehicle has defensive layer that shields the team from little arms projectiles.
Guard Ministry of Russia apparently offered India its most recent TOS-2 'Tosochka' weighty flamethrower vehicles for overcoming adversary staff in fortresses at Defense Expo 2020. With a scope of 3.5km to 10km, Russians consider this to be a viable hostile weapons framework for sending in the uneven area of Line of control against Pakistani powers who in their bid to drive fear based oppressors into the Indian side of Kashmir, give cover shoot and target Indian posts routinely. With TOS-2 presently coming mounted on a wheeled skeleton, versatility in high mountains won't be an issue since its ancestor TOS-1A was mounted on T-72 frame.
The TOS-2 was relied upon to close state preliminaries in 2020, which will prepare for it to enter sequential creation and join the Russian military on functional obligation. "TOS-2 is at the phase of primer tests. As per their outcomes, the letter "O" will be doled out, after which it will go to state tests, which will be finished one year from now. From that point forward, a choice will be made on its reception," said Kochkin 25 June 2020.
State trial of the new long-range rocket shot for the TOS-2 Tosochka weighty flamethrower framework will be finished before the current year's over. This was declared 19 November 2021 in a meeting with TASS by the overall head of the NPO Splav named after A. N. Ganichev "(some portion of the Tekhnodinamika holding of the Rostec state company) Alexander Smirnov. "Another rocket shot has been created. State tests are in progress, the primary pilot bunch has been created for exploratory military activity. We additionally plan to finish trial of the TOS-2 ammo in full this year," can likewise be utilized with TOS-1A.
EvolutionIn 2003, the superior TOS-1A framework Solntsepyok entered administration with the reach stretched out to 6 kilometers and a superior ballistic computer. In March 2020, Russia presented another rocket for the TOS-1A with a scope of 10 km, accomplished partially by weight and size decreases of another fuel air dangerous blend in the warhead, while additionally expanding its power. Least reach is stretched out from 400 m to 1.6 km, so the more limited reach M0.1.01.04M rocket will be held for close battle environments. In 2018, Russian NBC Protection Troops got 30 TOS-1A Solntsepyok (Sunburn) 220 mm numerous rocket launchers.
Saudi Arabian Military Industries marked a Memorandum of Understanding with Rosoboronexport for the nearby creation of the TOS-1A. The new TOS-2 framework was first utilized during the Kavkaz-2020 drills in September 2020. It depends on a Ural off-road vehicle. It is additionally outfitted with an all the more remarkable TBS-M3 rocket and its own crane and it has an expanded reach. It is shielded from accuracy weapons.
UsersAlgeria: 52 acquired
Azerbaijan: 36 acquired from former USSR
Armenia: Part of Russian–Armenian arms deal (Unknown numbers)
Iraq: 12 acquired in 1989
Kazakhstan: 3, from local ex-USSR stock
Russia: circa 45 remaining, plus an unknown number of TOS-1A and TOS-2 demonstration prototypes.
Saudi Arabia: The Royal Saudi Land Forces (unknown), with a license to produce the TOS-1A granted in 2017.
Syria: 8+ delivered, which took part in the civil war.
The TOS-1 was first displayed freely at the third worldwide Omsk '99 presentation of ground and air gear in June 1999. Hung on the grounds of the Polyot aviation combination, exhibit activities and terminating tests were held at the Svetly municipality test site. Potentially a model, the frame depends on the T-72 tank. Frameworks of this kind in the West are normally utilized for mine-clearing activities, and it is conceivable that this framework was squeezed into administration in Chechnya for this reason, just as to utilize the fuel-air hazardous region forswearing ammo against Chechen warriors in metropolitan regions.
TOS-1s were first utilized in combat in Afghanistan's Panjshir valley by the Soviet Union during the Soviet-Afghan War. Later, they were utilized during the Second Chechen War, unmistakably by the Russian Army during the Battle of Grozny in 1999.
TOS-1As were first utilized in battle in Iraq by the Iraqi Army in the recover of Jurf Al Sakhar on October 24, 2014 from ISIL forces. The Iraqi Army sent off somewhere around three TOS-1 rockets on 18 June 2017 during the principal day of a hostile to recover the Old City of Mosul, Iraq, from the Islamic State, focusing on school structures held by Islamic State powers and known to be without civilians.
The OSCE revealed in September 2015 that the TOS-1 was located in a dissident preparation region in eastern Ukraine. The TOS-1 was utilized in Syria on October 10, 2015 by Syrian Army powers against rebel powers in Hama. In 2016 it was utilized against rebel powers in the Latakia mountains. It was utilized again by the Syrian Army in April 2017 in the space of Palmyra, and later around the same time to obliterate an ISIS camp. In November 2018, the framework was conveyed by the SAA against ISIS in Al-Safa region.
Azerbaijan utilized the TOS-1A against the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Army on 4 April 2016 and 28 September 2020. It partook in the huge scope Russian-Belarussian practice Zapad in September 2021.
Use in Chechnya, 1995-2002
During the 1994-95 conflict in Chechnya the Russians were astounded by the complexity of the Chechen utilization of booby-traps and mines. Chechens mined and booby-caught everything, showing magnificent knowledge into the activities and responses of the normal Russian officer. Mine and booby-trap mindfulness was difficult to keep up with among inadequately prepared Russian soldiers. In the new battling that started in late 1999, the Chechen capital Grozny has been intensely mined by Chechen powers, who are battling from covers for projectile launcher-and assault rifle teams. The Russian military has additionally charged that Chechen contenders getting ready to wage compound fighting utilizing chlorine, smelling salts and sulphuric corrosive bombs covered in Grozny. The TOS-1-4 framework's region disavowal capacity would be helpful for both mine-clearing tasks, just as in activities against dove in troops.
The "Buratino" was the fundamental thermobaric conveyance framework that the Russians utilized against Grozny. It was first battle tried in Afghanistan's Panjshir valley in the mid 1980s during the Soviet-Afghan War. Worked by the Omsk Transmash plan agency, Buratino is a 30-barrel 220mm different rocket launcher framework mounted on a T-72 tank body. It is found in the substance troops' different fire hurler brigades. It is a noticed fire framework with a most extreme powerful scope of 3.5 kilometers (different sources say it has a greatest scope of five kilometers). The base reach is 400 meters.
Toward the beginning of December 1999 Chechnya blamed the Russian military for involving a unidentified kind of substance weapon in the attack on Grozny. As indicated by Chechen reports, north of 30 individuals were killed in the assault, which observes said delivered surprisingly yellow blazes, and in excess of 200 others experienced different levels of consumes. Albeit unverified, these reports are reminiscent of the fragmented explosion of the fuel spray scattered from a fuel-air touchy. Weapons of this kind require exact spray dispersal of fuel to guarantee legitimate blending in with environmental oxygen, trailed by unequivocally planned shooting of a little initiator charge to deliver an enormous blast. Inappropriate disperal of the fuel spray or a mis-planned terminating of the initiator could create an enormous fireball, however the subsequent deflagration would not deliver the impact shock wave of the expected hazardous explosion. The test of dependably delivering reliable explosions has restricted the use of this sort of ammo in Western munititions stockpiles.
Starting at 08 December 1999 the United States Department of State recognized that they knew about reports that Russia was utilizing fuel air bombs, however it couldn't affirm explicit reports of their business. By late December 1999 news offices were revealing that Russian warplanes had started dropping strong spray bombs on Chechen bases, now and then situated in caverns and profound channels.
On 28 December 1999 First Deputy Chief of the Russian General staff, Colonel General Valery Manilov, expressed that the Russian Federal Forces had not applied what he named "volume blast bombs" in the Chechen mountains, despite the fact that he recognized that Russia has such weapons. This forswearing is critical, in that it doesn't affirm that such weapons have not been utilized in Grozny, just that they had not been utilized in different pieces of Chechnya. The exact specialized extent of this refusal is additionally muddled, in that standard reference sources, for example, the Russian Arms Catalog and the ORDATA-II CDROM, don't unveil the reality of the presence of air-conveyed fuel-air explosives in the Russian armory.
Specifications of the TOS-1
|Dimensions||9.53 x 3.37 x 3.23m|
|Total weight, battle ready||42 tonnes|
|Crew||3 (driver, commander, operator)|
|Propulsion||V-84-1 diesel. Engine power: 840 hp|
|Speed (road)||60 km/h (? mph)|
|Range||550 km ( mi)|
|Armament||30x 122 mm rockets|
|Armor||Same as regular T-72 (chassis). Unarmoured launcher.|
Sources & links
The Buratino globalsecurity.org
The 2001 TOS-1A On military-today.com
The TOS-1 on military-today.com
Serial vehicle as shown in 2002.
TOS-1A camouflaged, with the red guards symbol
TZM-T loader-transport vehicle - The transport-loading vehicle TZM-T is designed for transporting NURS, loading and unloading the launcher.