German Reich (1944)
Tank Destroyer – 930-950 Built
During the Second World War, the Germans developed a large number of different Jagdpanzer designs. Some of these were hastily designed and made, some were temporary solutions, and there were also those which were specifically designed for the role of Jagdpanzer. The latter is the case with the late-war Panzer IV/70(V). It was well protected, armed with a powerful gun and, with a low profile, it proved to be a deadly weapon. However, the effect of this vehicle on the battlefields of Europe in 1944 was limited, as production began late that year and very few reached the front lines.
First Jagdpanzer Designs
Even before the war, the famous German commander Heinz Guderian had predicted the need for highly mobile self-propelled anti-tank vehicles later known as Panzerjäger or Jagdpanzer (tank destroyer or hunter). The terms Jagdpanzer and Panzerjäger were, according to Germany military terminology and concepts, essentially one and the same. After the war, however, the Jagdpanzer term would be used to describe the fully enclosed tank destroyers while the Panzerjäger would be used for the open-topped tank destroyer vehicles.
In March of 1940, the first attempt to build such a vehicle was made. This was the 4.7 cm PaK (t) (Sfl) auf Pz.Kpfw. I, generally known today simply as the Panzerjäger I. It was more or less a simple improvisation, made by using a modified Panzer I Ausf.B tank hull and by mounting a 4.7 cm PaK (t) with a small shield on it. Later, during the attack on the Soviet Union and the battles in North Africa, the need for effective anti-tank vehicles became of greater importance for the Germans. The appearance of the towed 7.5 cm PaK 40 in increasing numbers somewhat solved this problem, but the main issue with this gun was its lack of mobility.
The need for a mobile anti-tank vehicle would lead to the development of the “Marder” series, which was based on several different tank chassis and armed with powerful and efficient anti-tank guns. Captured tanks and other vehicles would also be reused for this purpose. In 1944, the Nashorn, armed with the excellent 88 mm Pak 43, was put into production. But most of these vehicles were hastily designed and built and, while they did the job, they were far from perfect. These vehicles were built by using different tank chassis and installing a gun with a limited traverse in an open-topped superstructure. The two main issues were the great height, which made them extremely difficult to camouflage, and the general lack of an effective armor design.
The German infantry support self-propelled assault gun, the Sturmgeschütz, or simply StuG, (based on the Panzer III) proved to have great potential when used as Jagdpanzers. They had relatively good armor, a low profile, and could be armed with the longer barrelled 7.5 cm gun. The mass-produced StuG III Ausf.G armed with the longer 7.5 cm gun (L/48) was able to efficiently fight almost any Allied tank up to the end of the war. The StuG vehicles were also much easier to build than any German tank. In 1942, the first plans to equip the StuG with a stronger gun and armor were made. These would eventually lead to the development of the Panzer IV/70(V) in late 1944.
Early Development of the Jagdpanzer IV
The story of the Panzer IV/70(V) actually began in September 1942, when the Waffenamt issued a request for developing a new design of Sturmgeschütz – the Neuer Sturmgeschütze (or ‘Sturmgeschütze neue Art’ depending on the source) series. It was to be armed with the 7.5 cm KwK L/70 gun and protected with 100 mm frontal and 40 to 50 mm of side armor. It was intended to have the lowest possible height, a top speed of 25 km/h and a weight of up to 26-tonnes. According to original plans, a completely new chassis was to be developed but, due to the lack of industrial capacity, the Panzer IV tank chassis was chosen instead. During 1942, there were many tests of different designs for the new Jagdpanzer based on the StuG III design. At the same time, the firm of Alkett tested the installation of the StuG III superstructure on the Panzer IV tank chassis armed with the 7.5 cm L/70 gun (Gerät No.820). One was also fitted with a 10.5 cm gun and there was even a proposal to test the installation of an 88 mm gun. As this modification proved to be somewhat complicated and was not feasible for production in the near future, a new solution was needed. There were also proposals to combine some components from the Panzer III, IV, and the VK16.02 ‘Leopard’, but nothing came of this.
More extensive work on a new vehicle (based on the Panzer IV Ausf.H tank chassis) was carried out by the Vogtlandische Maschinenfabrik AG of Plauen (VOMAG) in early 1943, under the designation Gerät No.821. The wooden mockup was completed by May 1943 and the final prototype was ready by end of the same year. Adolf Hitler liked the new Jagdpanzer IV design and ordered that mass production should begin as soon as possible.
As already mentioned, the Jagdpanzer IV was based on the Panzer IV tank chassis with the turret and the top of the hull removed and replaced with a simple, easy to build, but highly-angled armored hull. The rear engine compartment was almost the same with minimal changes (the engine was also the same) but the original plans for the armament and armor had to be changed. There were inadequate numbers of the 7.5 cm L/70 guns available for the design, so the shorter L/48 had to be used instead. The maximum front armor was 60 mm instead of 100 mm but placed at a high angle which provided good protection.
In general, this vehicle had more or less the same operational combat characteristics as the already produced StuG III anti-tank version. Both had the same gun, but the Jagdpanzer IV had a more effective and much simpler armor design. While an effective tank destroyer, it could be considered a waste of time and resources as the StuG III did the same job and was already in production. Even the Inspector-General of the Panzertruppen, Heinz Guderian, was against the new Jagdpanzer IV vehicle from the start, due to it being so similar to the StuG III and as it was draining significant and necessary resources needed for the Panzer IV production.
The Jagdpanzer IV was armed with a 7.5 cm PaK 39 L/48 and protected with 60 mm frontal armor. Source
The Jagdpanzer IV would be produced from January to August of 1944 with some 769 to 784 vehicles built. The production was stopped in August as the new better armed and armored Panzer IV/70(V) version was ready for production.
The Development History of the Panzer IV/70(V)
In a conference held in late January 1944, Hitler himself urged for future development and rearmament of the Jagdpanzer IV with the more powerful 7.5 cm L/70 gun. Vomag was responsible for the implementation and realization of this task. One Jagdpanzer IV prototype (serial num. 320162) was rearmed with the 7.5 cm L/70 StuK 42 (SturmKanone) (also known as Pak 42 (PanzerabwehrKanone) gun) and had its frontal armor increased from 60 mm to 80 mm for testing in early 1944. These tests proved that the installation of the new gun in the Jagdpanzer IV was feasible and without major complications.
Photographs of this prototype were presented to Hitler in early April 1944, and the prototype vehicle was demonstrated to him on 20th April 1944 (his birthday). Hitler was excited about this vehicle and immediately ordered the beginning of mass production with some 800 Panzer IV/70(V) vehicles per month. These numbers were never achieved, and the greatest monthly production reached just 185 vehicles.
This is the Panzer IV/70(V) prototype (Fgst.Nr. 320162), it can be identified by its front rubber wheels, different gun mantlet design and by the added welded round armor plate over the left mounted machine gun port. The Panzer IV/70(V) prototype at first did not have the gun travel lock but, due to the gun weight, it was later added. Source
At the same time, Alkett made attempts to increase the number of produced vehicles by making the whole superstructure design simpler and easier for production. This vehicle was known under the designation Panzer IV/70(A), but only 278 would be built.
In July 1944, Hitler gave orders to terminate the Panzer IV production in favor of the Panzer IV/70(V) and Panzer IV/70(A) based on the fact that the Panzer IV was reaching its developmental peak and had few options available for improving its overall performance. The whole conversion process was to be completed by February 1945. As the German army was lacking sufficient numbers of operational tanks, this order was never fully implemented and the Panzer IV remained in production until the end of the war.
The Panzer IV/70(V) was essentially the same vehicle as the Jagdpanzer IV but had thicker frontal armor and was armed with the longer gun. Source
Origin of the Panzer IV/70(V) Name
By Hitler’s direct orders from 18th July 1944, this vehicle was officially designated as Panzer IV lang (V). The capital letter ‘V’ is for the vehicle’s manufacturer and designer, Vomag. In order to avoid any confusion with Panzer IV tanks and the previous L/48 tank hunter version, the German troops on the front referred to this vehicle as Panzer IV/70(V) (the number 70 stood for the barrel length) and this designation was even officially adopted by the Heeres Waffenamt in November 1944. In some sources, this vehicle is also known as Jagdpanzer IV/70(V). According to some sources, due to the vehicle’s slower speed and movement, the crews gave this vehicle the nickname “Guderian Ente” (Guderian’s Duck). It should be noted that, in German, ‘Ente’ not only means duck, but also urine bottle, which is also claimed to have been the reason the Panzer IV/70V received the name “Guderian Ente”.
Visually, the Panzer IV/70(V) was almost the same as the previous Jagdpanzer IV version, the most obvious difference being the length of the main gun and the added travel-lock. The Panzer IV/70(V) was built by using the Panzer IV tank chassis (some Ausf.H but mostly Ausf.J), which was, for the most part, unchanged.
The lower front hull was redesigned and had a more sharply angled shape. The transmission and the two steering brake inspection hatches remained, but the brake inspection hatches were square shaped and smaller than on the Panzer IV tank. During the Panzer IV/70(V) production run the air intake vents on the brake inspection hatches were removed.
The suspension and running gear were the same as those of the original Panzer IV, with no changes to their construction. They consisted of eight small road wheels (on each side) suspended in four pairs by leaf-spring units. There were two front drive sprockets, two rear idlers and eight return rollers in total. The numbers of return rollers was reduced to three per side later in the production run and replaced with steel ones. As the vehicle proved to be nose-heavy, the front two road wheels were prone to being rapidly worn out or, in some cases, they even malfunctioned. To solve this problem, most vehicles were to be equipped with two (or more) steel-tired and internally sprung wheels, from September 1944 onwards. From February/March 1945, on some vehicles, the rear idler was replaced with a cast one which was easier to make. The ground clearance was increased to 40 cm. If needed, the normal tracks could be replaced with wider ‘East tracks’ (Ostketten).
The engine was the Maybach HL 120 TRM which produced 265 [email protected] rpm. The design of the engine compartment was unchanged. Maximum speed was 35 km/h (16 km/h cross country) with an operational range (with 470 l fuel) of 210 km. From September 1944 on, these vehicles were fitted with new flame dampening exhausts and mufflers (flammentoeter). The engine and the crew compartment were separated by a fire resistant and gas-tight armored firewall. In order to avoid any fire accidents, an automatic fire extinguisher system was installed in the engine compartment.
The Panzer IV/70(V)’s new superstructure was well protected with its angled, thick and simple armor design. The angled shape of the superstructure provided thicker nominal armor and also increased the chance of deflecting enemy shots. This way, the need for more carefully machined armored plates (like on Panzer III or IV) was unnecessary. Also, by using larger one-piece metal plates, the structure avoided a lot of welding making it much stronger and also easier for production. The Panzer IV/70(V) upper hull was built out of surface-hardened steel plates (Type E 22) manufactured by Witkowitzer Bergbau und Eisenhütten.
The Panzer IV/70(V) upper front hull armor plate was 80 mm thick at a 45° angle, and the lower plate was 50 mm at a 55° angle. The side armor was 30 mm, the rear 20 mm and the bottom was 10 mm. The hull crew compartment had 20 mm of bottom armor. The upper superstructure frontal armor was 80 mm at a 50° angle (or 40° according to some sources), the sides were 40 mm at a 60° angle, the rear armor was 30 mm, and the top was 20 mm. The engine compartment design and armor was unchanged with 20 mm all around and 10 mm of top armor. Additional 5 mm thick armor plates were also provided for extra protection of the engine compartment sides.
The Panzer IV/70(V) could be equipped with additional 5 mm thick armor plates (Schürzen) covering the side of the vehicle. In practice though, these would rarely last long and would simply fall off the vehicle during combat operations. Due to material shortages, by late 1944, stiff wire mesh panels (Thoma Schürzen) were used instead of the armor plates. These were much lighter and most sources claim that it provided the same level of protection as the solid type. It is often mentioned that Schürzen were designed as protection against shape-charged weapons but they were actually designed to counter Soviet anti-tank rifle projectiles. Moreover, Steven Zaloga points out in ‘Bazooka vs. Panzer’ that a unit from the American 1st Armored Group in the Sarrebourg area tested the Bazooka against one Panzer IV equipped with stiff wire mesh panels similar to the Thoma Schürzen. The tests showed that the wire mesh panels did not offer any protection against shape-charged weapons.
One more line of protection was the possible application of Zimmerit anti-magnetic paste to counter magnetic anti-tank mines, but the use of this paste would be abandoned in the late stages of the war.
The Schürzen side plates, added for extra protection, can be observed in this photo, as well as the vehicle’s small size. The gun lock, in this case made out of solid metal, is also noticeable. Source
The Panzer IV/70(V) tank destroyer’s main armament was the 7.5 cm StuK 42 L/70 cannon, also known as the 7.5 cm PaK 42 L/70. This gun was more or less the same one used on the German Panther tank. The elevation of the 7.5 cm StuK 42 L/70 was from –5° to +15° and the traverse was 20°. The main gun was not placed at the vehicle’s centre, but was instead moved some 20 cm to the right side. One 80 mm thick cast gun mantlet acted as extra protection for the gun. The main weapon was produced by Gustloff-Werke (Weimar) and Škoda (Pilsen). A hydro-pneumatic equilibrator was provided for better gun balance and one iron counter-weight was added at the end of the recoil guard. To avoid damaging the main gun when on the move, a heavy travel-lock was provided. In order to free the gun, the gun operator had only to elevate the gun a bit and the travel lock would fall down. This allowed for a quick combat response but also avoided the need for a crew member to exit the vehicle in order to do it manually.
The main gun was not equipped with a muzzle brake. The first Jagdpanzer IV produced were equipped with muzzle brakes but, during combat action, the crews often removed them due to the dust clouds created during firing. This reduced the visibility but more importantly gave away the vehicle’s position to the enemy. From May 1944 on, the muzzle brake was removed from production and this would be also carried on with the later Panzer IV/70(V). As this gun required a large amount of room and the use of large one-piece ammunition, the Panzer IV/70(V) interior was very cramped and the ammunition capacity was only 55 rounds (or 60 depending on the source). Around 34 were armor-piercing (AP) (PzGr 39/42 or 40/42), while the remaining 21 were high-explosive (HE) (SpGr 42). The ammunition was stored along both wall sides and held in ammunitions racks.
The secondary weapon used was the MG 42 machine gun with some 1,200 rounds of ammunition. Unlike most other German vehicles, a ball mount was not used on this vehicle. The machine gun port was instead protected with a movable hemispherical-shaped armored cover. The machine gun mount was located to the vehicle’s right side. The Panzer IV/70(V) was also equipped with the Nahverteidigungswaffe (close defense weapon) with some 40 or more rounds of ammunition, located on the vehicle top and covered with a round armored cover.
Unknown numbers of late built vehicles were equipped with the ‘Vorsatz P’ curved muzzle attachment for the MP 43/44 (7.92 mm) assault rifles. The mounting for this weapon was placed on the loader’s hatch door and was operated by him. The last line of defense was the crew’s personal weapons.
The Vorsatz P curved muzzle attachment for the MP 43/44. Source
The four-man crew consisted of the commander, gunner, loader/radio operator, and the driver. The driver’s position was on the vehicle left front side but his view of the surrounding area was limited as he only had a front mounted periscope and a small periscope pointing to the right to see out of. Behind him was the gunner’s position, which was provided with an Sfl.ZF 1a gun sight for acquiring targets. This sight was linked to an Azimuth indicator, the purpose of which was to tell the gunner the precise and current position of the gun. When in use, the sight was projected through the sliding armored cover on the vehicle’s top armor. For operating the gun, there were two traverse hand wheels. The lower wheel was for the traverse and the upper one for the elevation. The gunner was also provided with a recoil shield, while the loader was not.
Behind these two was the commander’s position, which had a rotating periscope located in the escape hatch and one pointing to the left. The commander had a small additional hatch door for the use of a retractable Sfl.4Z telescope. The commander was also responsible for providing the loader with the ammunition located on the left side wall.
The last crew member was the loader, who was positioned on the vehicle’s right side. He operated the radio (Fu 5 radio set) which was located to the right rear and he also doubled as the MG 42 machine gun operator. There was a small opening located above the machine gun which provided the gun operator with a limited view of the front. When not in use, the machine gun could be pulled into a small travel lock which was connected to the vehicle’s roof. In that case, the machine gun port could be closed by pivoting the hemispherical-shaped armor cover. The use of this machine gun type is strange, as the usual hull mounted machine gun in all German armored vehicles was the MG 34. Nearly all periscopes were protected with an armored flap cover.
The crew could enter the vehicle through two hatches located at the top of the vehicle. There was an additional floor escape hatch door that could be used in case of emergency.
In the hope of removing any extra weight at the front, most spare parts and ancillary equipment were moved to the rear engine compartment. These included things such as spare tracks, wheels, repair tools, the fire extinguisher and crew extra equipment. Some vehicles had an armored and welded base for a 2-tonne crane added on the superstructure roof. The rear tow bars were changed with vertically positioned ones.
The dimensions were: length 8.5 m, width 3.2 m, and height 2 m (or length 8.58 m, width 3.17 m, and height 1.85 m according to other sources). Total combat weight was around 25.8 metric tons.
Two Panzer IV/70(V) abandoned on the battlefield. The one in the background has a white sheet hanging from the gun. Source
Panzer IV/70(V) Befehlswagen
An unknown number of Panzer IV/70(V) were modified to be used as Befehlswagen (command vehicles). These vehicles had additional radio equipment installed, the FuG 8 30 radio station (30 W power) with an operational range of 80 km. The extra equipment was positioned behind the loader and was to be operated by an extra crew member (but some sources do not mention the fifth crew member). The Befehlswagen would also use a Sternantenne (star radio antenna) which was 1.4 m long and located on the left side of the engine compartment.
Production was carried out by Vomag and, from November 1944 through April 1945, some 930 vehicles were built. Maximum production was achieved in January 1945, with 185 completed vehicles that month. Due to the bad situation in Germany, the production dropped rapidly in February to 135 vehicles, and dropped further to only 50 vehicles produced in March. The last 10 vehicles were to be completed in April, but it is possible that this was never achieved.
Like many other German military vehicles, authors cannot agree on precise production numbers. Most quote the figure of 930, while some, like Hilary Louis Doyle, quote 950 produced vehicles. According to Duško Nešić, some 940 were built, whereas Krzysztof M. and George P. estimate that between 930 to 940 vehicles were produced.
The Panzer IV/70(V) would be used to equip many different German units. For Panzer and Panzer Grenadier Divisions, they were grouped into Panzerjäger Abteilungs. The Panzerjäger Abteilung usually had two Panzerjäger Companies. These Panzerjäger Companies were to be equipped with 10 to 14 Panzer IV/70 divided into three Platoons, with one to three vehicles assigned to the Company HQ. As the Panzer IV/70 did not reach the front in great numbers, these units were often below the officially prescribed combat strength.
The Panzer IV/70(V) was also used to equip Kampfgruppen (Combat/battle groups). As ordered by Adolf Hitler (on July 2nd, 1944), small armored Kampfgruppe were to be formed. These would later be renamed to Panzer Brigaden. These groups were to be equipped with 30 to 40 tanks and self-propelled guns. As the Panzer IV/70 began to become available in sufficient numbers, it was also included in these units.
Although these vehicles were designed as tank destroyers with thick armor, their best defense was a well-selected and camouflaged position. Source
The term Jagdpanzer could be somewhat misleading. Despite the good frontal protection and the strong gun (in the case of this vehicle), its job was not to go on offensive hunts, either in the open or in urban areas, for enemy tanks. The Jagdpanzers were more of a defensive weapon concept, and their primary mission was to engage (if possible in great numbers) enemy tanks and to act as fire support at long ranges from carefully selected and well-camouflaged combat positions, usually on the flanks.
In offensive operations, they would support Panzer units from a safe distance and on the flanks. If the attack was successful, they were to move to new combat positions. In case of a failed attack or even in false retreat, they were to form a firing line in order to trap and destroy any enemy advancing armor units.
This vehicle, belonging to the 1st Panzerjäger Abteilung (1st Panzer Division), was pictured on the Western front in late 1944. Source
In support of the infantry, once the objective was captured, they were to remain there until that location was secure from any imminent enemy counterattack. After this was achieved, they were to return to the rear and wait for future orders. In the case of enemy attacks, they were to provide long-range support fire against enemy heavy armor. In retreats, the Jagdpanzers would be used to form defensive positions in the new rear lines.
Engagement with enemy tanks at close range (especially from the sides) was very dangerous for such vehicles, as they lacked a fully traversing turret, meaning they could not quickly respond to enemy movements. For example, in urban (especially in destroyed cities) areas, the lack of a fully traversing turret could prevent them from engaging enemy armor that got too close, as these hostile tanks had a clear advantage with their turret. Despite the Panzer IV/70(V)’s excellent frontal armor, the sides and rear were weak. The greatest defense was a well-selected combat position, which any good Jagdpanzer commander had to learn to take advantage of.
A heavily destroyed Panzer IV/70(V). This was likely the result of an internal explosion. Source
The first units to be equipped with the new Panzer IV/70(V) were the 105th and 106th Panzer Brigades in early August 1944. These two units were engaged against Allied forces on the Western Front. These were followed (also in August) by the 11.Abt. Panzer Regiment “Großdeutschland” Führer Begleit Brigade, 107th Panzer Brigade, Führer Grenadier Brigade, 109th Panzer Brigade. 110th Panzer Brigade, each equipped with 11 Panzer IV/70(V) vehicles.
Despite the production of nearly 1000 vehicles, the distribution process to the front line units was too slow. This was mostly due to the increased number of Allied bombing and ground attack actions in Germany, which caused huge problems for transporting these vehicles (and any other) to the front. The Panzer IV/70(V) began to reach front line units in great numbers only from January 1945 on, and by that time, it was too late. The largest concentration of Panzer IV/70(V) (137 vehicles) for one combat action was during the last German offensive operation on the Western front, during the fighting in the Ardennes in December of 1944.
While the Panzer IV/70(V) was a tank destroyer, it was also sometimes used in other roles, such as an assault gun. When acting in this role without infantry support, it proved to be an easy target for enemy anti-tank (bazooka armed) teams, as shown during an attack on the Krinkelt-Rocherath villages. The Panzer IV/70(V) from the 12th SS Panzerjäger Abteilung (12th SS Panzer Division “Hitlerjugend”) were used to attack elements from the American 2nd Infantry Division which was defending the Krinkelt-Rocherath villages and the Lausdell crossroads. The first attacks on the American position at Lausdell crossroads were made with the support of two Panzer IV/70(V) companies on 17th December 1944. The Americans had no armor available at this point, but had artillery support and placed large numbers of anti-tank mines. During the attack on the Lausdell crossroads, several Panzer IV/70(V) (from the 2nd Company) were leading the attack supported by small Panzergrenadier infantry groups, which were hiding on the Panzer IV/70(V) engine decks. Once the German vehicles were spotted, they were immediately bombarded by the American artillery. One vehicle was destroyed by an artillery hit, and two were immobilized by mines. One immobilized vehicle was firing at the American positions, but was eventually destroyed with a combination of thermite grenades and a fuel canister. Two more Panzer IV/70(V) were destroyed by bazooka teams. After regrouping, the Germans repeated the attack later that day but it was met with heavy artillery fire and between four to seven armored vehicles (of an unknown type) were reported destroyed. One last attack attempt was made at 22.30 hrs, but with the support of artillery, this attack was also repulsed.
The following day, the Germans attacked the Krinkelt-Rocherath villages with elements from the 12th SS Panzerjäger Abteilung 2nd company with the support of SS Panzergrenadier 25th Regiment. The American positions guarding the first line defense trenches were overrun. The Panzer IV/70(V) that entered the village managed to destroy three M4 tanks. There was heavy fighting that lasted the whole day, but the Germans withdrew the next morning expecting reinforcements and supplies. The next day they continued with the attacks, but, in the end, they could not breach this line and suffered heavy losses (one Panzer IV/70(V) was lost together with several Panzer IV and Panther tanks). The 12th SS Panzerjäger Abteilung, at the start of the Ardennes offensive, had 22 Panzer IV/70(V) but had lost three vehicles with seven damaged, although they were subsequently recovered and repaired.
Behind the left Panther we can see a Panzer IV/70(V) lost during the battle for the Krinkelt-Rocherath villages. Source
The Americans used a captured Panzer IV/70(V) during the winter of 1944/45 to test the effectiveness of bazookas. While the front armor proved impervious, the sides and the rear were vulnerable to this weapon.
The Panzer IV/70(V) also saw some heavy action on the Eastern Front, where it also proved to be an effective tank destroyer, as in the case of schwere Panzerjäger Abteilung 563. The schwere Panzerjäger Abteilung 563 received 18 Jagdpanthers and 22 Panzer IV/70(V) divided into two companies on 20th January 1945. The next day, this unit was sent to Allenstain in Poland. The 563rd participated in heavy fighting in Poland, where it claimed to have destroyed some 58 enemy tanks with the loss of four Panzer IV/70(V) and one Jagdpanther during a period of 10 days. By the beginning of February 1945, this unit was a mere shadow of its former strength with only 5 Jagdpanthers and 3 Panzer IV/70(V) left. All remaining vehicles had to be abandoned or destroyed by their crews due to a lack of fuel, spare parts and the muddy terrain.
Over thirty different German units were equipped, usually with about 11 such vehicles each. These would be used to support many German front line Divisions, including 2nd SS Panzer Division, 1st SS Panzer Division, 7th, 8th, 13th, and 21st Panzer Divisions, 20th Panzergrenadier Division, Panzer Abteilung “Jüteborg”, 510th Heeres Panzerjäger Abteilung and others.
Some StuG-equipped units (Sturmgeschütz-Abteilung) were reinforced with IV/70(V) vehicles, like the 226th and 210th Sturmgeschütz-Abteilung. There was also a last-ditch attempt to form a mixed company equipped with Panzer IV/70(V) and (A) prototypes at Kümmersdorf on 15th February 1945. One of the last units to receive 10 new built Panzer IV/70(V) was the 33rd Panzer Regiment from the 9th Panzer Division on 17th April 1945.
By early April 1945, the German Army had around 285 operational Panzer IV/70(V). Nearly all were stationed on the Eastern Front (274), while only small numbers were stationed on the Western Front (8) and only three in Italy.
By late 1944, there was a general lack of Panzers, so the Germans were forced to use the Jagdpanzers as replacement vehicles instead. The Panzer IV/70(V) suffered losses as it was often used in the role of Panzer, a role for which it was not suited nor designed for. But as there were no other solutions, something was better than nothing.
A Soviet T-34-85 passes by a destroyed Panzer IV/70(V) somewhere on the Eastern Front in March 1945. Source
Other IV/70(V) operators
The Bulgarians, after changing sides in September of 1944, immediately began attacking their former German ally. In March 1945, their armored force was supplemented with one captured Panzer IV/70(V) (Ser. Num. 320662) supplied by the Soviets. In Bulgarian service, this vehicle was known under the Maybach T-IV name. This vehicle still exists to this day and can be seen at the National Museum of Military History in Sofia.
Unknown numbers of captured Panzer IV/70(V) were supplied to the Romanian army by the Soviet Union (possibly after the war). In Romanian service, they were known under the TA T-4 designation and remained in service until 1950, when they were replaced with more modern Soviet equipment. TA was an abbreviation for ‘Tun de Asalt,’ (Assault Gun) and T-4 was the Romanian designation for the Panzer IV.
After the war, Syria received a number of older German captured armored vehicles including unknown numbers of Panzer IV/70(V) and Jagdpanzer IV. These were supplied by the Soviets and they saw action during the Six Day War.
One Panzer IV/70(V) was given to the Bulgarians by the Soviets. In Bulgarian service, this vehicle was known under the Maybach T-IV name. Source: Matev
A small number of Panzer IV/70(V) survive to this day and can be seen in several museums around the world. One can be found in the capital city of Bulgaria, Sofia, one in Shrivenham in the UK, two in the USA (Patton Museum and Aberdeen Proving Grounds), one in Canada (Ottawa), and one at Kubinka (Russia).
Despite the issue with its weight, the Panzer IV/70(V) proved to be a dangerous and effective anti-tank weapon as it could destroy all Allied armored vehicles from great ranges. It had a very low profile which made camouflaging it a very easy task. The strong frontal 80 mm angled armor provided efficient protection from enemy fire, especially from a distance.
But, on the other hand, it was built too late and in insufficient numbers to have any large impact on the War. The late introduction and long development time of this vehicle also disrupted the production of the much needed Panzer IV tank, which the Panzer IV/70(V) was sometimes forced to replace in combat, being used as a tank despite being unsuitable for the purpose.
Another destroyed Panzer IV/70(V) somewhere on the Western Front. Source
|Dimensions (L-W-H)||8.5 x 3.2 x 2 meters|
|Total weight, battle ready||25.8 tonnes|
|Armament||7.5 cm StuK 42/ PaK 42 L/70 and one 7.92 mm MG 42|
|Armor||Hull front 80 mm, side 30 mm, rear 20 mm and bottom 10-20 mm
Superstructure front 80 mm, side 40 mm top and rear 20 mm
|Crew||4 (driver, commander, gunner, loader)|
|Propulsion||Maybach HL 120 TRM, 300 hp (221 kW), 11.63 hp/ton|
|Speed||35 km/hr, 15-18 km/hr (cross country)|
|Operational range||210 km (130 mi)|
|Total production||930 – 950|
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Late-type Panzer IV/70(V) based on the Panzer IV Ausf.H, 13th Panzer Division, Hungary, January 1945.
Early type Panzer IV/70(V) in winter camouflage, Hungary, possibly January 1945.
Panzer IV/70(V), late version, 1st SS Panzer Division, Hungary, 1945.
Panzer IV/70(V), late version, 13th Panzer Division, Hungary, January 1945.
11 replies on “Panzer IV/70(V)”
Thanks for the interesting information. A rather successful design, a powerful and accurate gun, the possibility of mass production made this German self-propelled gun a very dangerous opponent for the allied armored vehicles.
Another updated article I presume?
Split and update, yes!
actually, the skirts where to protect the treds from bazooka rockets or anti-tank rifle rounds.
They were not meant to stop shaped charges (bazooka rockets) nor were they able to.
They were meant to stop anti-tank rifle rounds.
I disagree, by this time of the war anti tank rifles hadn’t been used for 2 years. The skirts would cause the premature detonation of the shaped charge weapon which would decrease the kinetic energy making contact with the main hull…
You are seriously wrong Dean. The Soviet PTRS-41 was in production until the end of the war and in use even after that.
Also, I remember there were a couple of tests that showed that there wasn’t enough distance between the skirts and the hull to sufficiently degrade the penetration of the molten jet, but that should be checked with the actual reports, as I’m not 100% confident in my memory here.
Not the case at all. Not only was the Panzer 4 and most assault guns still quite vulnerable to well-placed AT rifle fire to the side armor, but the Panther was vulnerable on its flanks as well, leading to the development of schurzen on the Panther to avoid having to further develop the Panther II project.
Schurzen were developed as a countermeasure for massed soviet AT rifle fire, of which numerous accounts are available. They were quite able to target vulnerable areas such as optics and the weak flanks of most of Germany’s vehicles till the war’s end. This is fairly evident by their appearance following the initial invasion of the USSR, long before they ever faced launcher-fired shaped charges such as the Bazooka in ’44, and perfectly in time to respond to Soviet PTRD and later PTRS rifles.
one of the best vehicles in warthunder imo
Please correct the “Production” article. Its not possible that this tank fought since August but was first time build in November
As a miniature wargamer, this is one my favorite vehicles, especially when playing the battles in Hungary. Reading this article was part of my research and I enjoyed it very much. The illustrated camouflage designs for these vehicles used in Hungary was a great discovery.