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Alvis Tactica

United Kingdom/Republic of Singapore/State of Kuwait/Republic of Indonesia/Argentina/Republic of Ghana/Republic of Mauritius/Kingdom of Norway/Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/Ukraine (1988)
Armored Personnel Carrier/Internal Security Vehicle – Approximately 340-354 Built + Prototypes

The Tactica, consecutively produced by Glover Webb, GKN Defence, Alvis plc, and BAE Systems, is an armored personnel carrier designed for internal security duties that was introduced in the late 1980s. It saw a considerable production run and has been adopted by nine countries. Two main versions were produced, an armored patrol vehicle with a bonneted design, and an armored personnel carrier with a cab-over-engine design. The latter has seen the most production in various configurations. Notoriously, the Tactica has been in the center of several heated weapon export policy debates. Two of the customers, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia, have been widely accused of having used the vehicles in human rights abuse. Simultaneously, the Tactica has also been used in three separate UN missions to good effect.

A promotional picture from Glover Webb, showing the bonneted Patrol version in the front and the forward-control Water Cannon in the back. Source: Glover Webb

Glover Webb & Development

The Tactica started off as a private development by the company Glover Webb from Hamble, Hampshire (United Kingdom). The company used its privately developed semi-monocoque frame as a basis on which the new armored body was developed. Two main versions were built, one vehicle with a cab-over-engine [abbr. COE] design, and one version with a conventional bonnet. Furthermore, specialist variants were developed using the COE design as a base. In 1988, the vehicle was officially introduced to the commercial market and had its first customer at the end of 1989, when several were sold to Singapore. In early 1993, a series was sold to the British Army, which used them mainly in Northern Ireland in specialized roles. Additionally, Patrol Tacticas were sold to Kuwait.

GKN Defence & Alvis plc & BAE Systems

At the end of 1994, Glover Webb was taken over by GKN Defence, but remained in service as a subsidiary until it was closed down in late 1997. The business and production of the Tactica series was relocated to GKN’s main facility in Telford, Shropshire (United Kingdom). It was marketed under GKN’s name for just a very short time, as GKN Defence merged with Alvis-Vickers in 1998. Just before all this happened, in mid-1997, a new order was secured from Argentina, for use with the UN mission on Cyprus. Furthermore, GKN showed off their two models at the British Equipment Exhibition of 1997, held at Farnborough Airfield, Hampshire. The APV version was shown in mock-up MOD police markings, while the APC stood next to the GKN Simba.

In addition to Singapore, the UK, Kuwait, and Argentina, further deals were consecutively concluded with Ghana, Indonesia, Mauritius, and Norway. In 2004, Alvis was taken over by BAE Systems. Under their management, the largest Tactica deal was signed, concerning an additional 200 vehicles for Saudi Arabia. As of October 2021, the Tactica is still listed as a product on the BAE Systems website, but the official sale brochure was taken offline before 2017 and the Tactica is no longer on offer.

One of the early prototypes with a new chassis, developed by Glover Webb. Source: Lumpy on the hmvf forum


The forward-control vehicle with the COE configuration was introduced as the basic vehicle in 1988. It had its engine mounted centrally between the driver and commander, who were seated at the front. Depending on the customer, the driving position was either on the left- or right-hand side. Their compartment was separated with half a bulkhead from the troop compartment that extended to the rear of the vehicle. There was enough space for at least ten men, but there were other configurations available for fourteen, sixteen, or eighteen men.

Although the first prototype was based on a commercially available Gomba Stonefield P5000 4×4 truck chassis, later, a new chassis was developed in-house. This new semi-monocoque hull was made with certified high-hardness armor, providing protection against 7.62 mm AP rounds. Reportedly, the actual thickness used to achieve this was around 25 mm. The vision blocks were purported to offer equal protection, while the belly also protected against fire bombs and IEDs. The armored glass of the windscreen and windows was 50 mm thick, with a 6 mm thick anti-spall liner. The vision blocks were 73 mm thick. The armor was supplied by Sleeman Engineering and the glass by Romag. The wheels were standard equipped with AL1-DCSR high-speed shoot-through tire systems.

For propulsion, a range of diesel engines were provided, depending on the customer’s needs. Gearboxes were also choosable, with either automatic or manual options. When equipped with the Mercedes-Benz OM 906LA diesel, the Tactica could reach a speed of 120 km/h with a range of 650 km. Another known engine option was the Perkins 180Ti.

Other standard features of the Tactica were powered steering and a permanent 4×4 drive with selectable ratios and three lockable differentials. The driver’s compartment could be reached through a door on either side, and the troop compartment through four doors, one in each side and a double door at the rear.


The regular APC version featured ten firing ports, while additional armament could be deployed on the roof. A small machine gun-armed turret was also optional, but only sold to Ghana. The turret could be armed with either a 7.62 mm machine gun or a heavier 12.7 mm [.50 cal] M2 HB machine gun.

A one-off prototype, produced by Glover Webb before 1994. It featured an independent suspension developed by Rockwell, rather than the standard leaf spring suspension. Source: Lucy Black on the hmvf forum

The Armored Patrol Vehicle

In essence, the Patrol vehicle was identical to the forward-control vehicle, although having a completely different hull, with less room inside and a less aggressive appearance. The Patrol also has eight firing ports, instead of ten.


  • APC
    • APC with ten-, fourteen-, sixteen-, or eighteen-man configuration
    • Armored Command Vehicle with a higher roof
    • Armored Ambulance with a three-man crew and four stretchers
    • Armored EOD vehicle
    • Armored Water Cannon
  • Patrol
    • Armored Patrol, high-speed, ten-man crew
    • Armored Patrol, APC, ten-man crew
    • Armored Assault, five- or ten-man crew

Tactica 2000

Some twelve years after its first introduction, an improved version of the Tactica was presented, which featured a more powerful Mercedes-Benz 906 series diesel engine, coupled to a new ZF Ecomat automatic transmission. In addition, the axles and suspension were upgraded, increasing the maximum vehicle weight significantly. The Tactica 2000 was bought by Saudi Arabia and Norway. The Saudi vehicles were based upon chassis developed by the Belgian/Flemish company Mol.

A Saudi Tactica 2000, photographed in 2020. The differences are clearly seen, with a redesigned front, straight instead of angled sides, and a higher roof. Source: Saudi Ministry of the National Guard

The Tactica as an ISV

As far as classifications go, internal security vehicles can broadly be separated into four categories, based upon the level of protection [Fulvio Bianchi, 2003]. The first class has very limited protection, not more than the addition of bulletproof glass, bars, and add-on armor plates no thicker than 2.5 mm. Often, these are converted vans or light trucks. The second class provides enough protection against small arms fire with ball rounds. To achieve this, a new body has to be built, but use is still made of vans and the like. The third class are considered to be protected against 7.62 mm fire and even small explosions. This level of protection is pursued by most police forces, as it offers a good balance in weight, protection, and agility. Examples for this class are the Shorland S600 and the RG-12.

The fourth class features protection to a military level and are less common to encounter, as it is easier and cheaper to adapt an already existing military vehicle to the police role, than to have to develop a dedicated ISV, although this can cause some drawbacks, like the potential lack of internal space. The Tactica was one of the few vehicles built in this class, offering protection similar to the German Thyssen TM-170, for example.


Confirmed Sales Overview

Country Quantity Order Delivery Notes
Singapore 2-10 1988 1989
Kuwait 20 1993 1993
United Kingdom 35[+3*] 1993 1993-1996
Indonesia 33 1994, 1995, 1996 1994, 1995, 1997
Argentina 9 1997 1998 For UNFICYP
Ghana 20 2000 2000-2002 For UNAMSIL
Mauritius 9-12 ~2002 2003
Norway 12 2002 2003
Saudi Arabia 200 2006/2007 2009-2012
Total 340-354 1988-2006/2007 1989-2012

* It is unclear if the three vehicles of the British Atomic Weapons Establishment were included in the official government figure of 35 owned vehicles.

Singapore [>2-10]

After the Tactica was introduced in 1988, Singapore was the first customer and placed an order for an unspecified number for the police. They were delivered in 1989, which made Singapore the first operator of the Tactica. A basic police version was acquired, painted in a typical British police style; dark blue with a blue-white checkerboard pattern stripe running along the sides.

A terrible quality picture of two Tacticas in Singapore in 1995. Source: Jane’s

The vehicles are rarely seen and appear to be last photographed around 2013 or early 2014 during riot control training with the Special Operations Command [SOC] and the Gurkha Contingent. The police mainly relies on locally-built tactical vehicles, which are painted red and therefore known as “Ang Chia” [Eng: Red Vehicle]. The current [2022] status of the Tacticas is unknown. They are either in storage, only to be used during a major emergency, or have already been disposed of.

Two Tactica’s can be seen behind the riot police. This photo was taken sometime in the early 2010s. Source:

Kuwait [20]

Kuwait received Tacticas for use by the Special Forces, under the Ministry of Interior [MOI]. According to Jane’s, 20 Patrol Tacticas were delivered after an order from 1993, but any details on their use, including photographs, are unknown. It is known that they were serviced by the company Ali Alghanim & Sons Automotive Co.w.l.l. which also services the other armored vehicles of the MOI, such as the Condor, TM-170, and Soframe.

United Kingdom [35]

In early 1993, the United Kingdom took its first deliveries of Tactica vehicles. They were acquired in specialized roles to be deployed in Northern Ireland, especially in the EOD configuration. Others were delivered to security services of the Ministry of Defence [Ministry of Defence Police, abbr. MDP or MOD Police]. In 1997, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Defence, John Spellar, confirmed that a total 35 Tacticas had been acquired.

Little is known about the MDP vehicles. They did not serve very long either, as they were replaced in 2010 by MacNeillie Protected Escort Vehicles. The EOD vehicles were used in Northern Ireland, in light of the unrest and threats posed by the Provisional Irish Republican Army. However, after a ceasefire in 1997 and an official dissolution in 2005, stability mostly returned and the EOD Tactica’s became redundant. They have since then been disposed of. Most if not all of the decommissioned Tacticas have been sold on the civilian market, with vehicles finding their way into private collections or museums. Several have been sold abroad too, with at least two going to the USA, and another two to the Netherlands.

A ‘Van IEDD’ vehicle of the UK EOD in Northern Ireland. It has its appliqué armor mounted on the whole body. When the vehicles were taken out of service, this armor was removed before they were sold on the civilian market. Source:
A EOD vehicle with all the aplliqué armor removed. In this bare state, they were sold on the civilian market. Source: eBay
A Patrol car of the MOD Police [MDP], seen in 2010. This specific vehicle, with registration ‘N856 GBK’, was built in 1995 and has been transferred to the collection of the MDP Museum. Source: Wikimedia

Atomic Weapons Establishment

In 1996, the British Atomic Weapons Establishment [AWE] based in Aldermaston and Burghfield, Berkshire (United Kingdom), placed an order for three Patrol vehicles. These were intended to provide terrorist attack intervention and high speed convoy support, in which case they would have carried eight armed personnel to protect nuclear warheads and nuclear fission material during transport in the United Kingdom.

These three vehicles were built in a unique configuration, with a dual 12 and 24 volt electrical system, two-wheel drive instead of the regular four-wheel drive to allow for higher speeds and road tractability. The chosen engine was a high pressure turbocharged 6-l Perkins engine, coupled to an Allison automatic 5-speed transmission.

One vehicle, with registration ‘HI 90 AA’ passed to the collection of the RAF Hack Green Nuclear complex in 2010. The status of the other two is unknown.

One former Tactica of the British Atomic Weapons Establishment [AWE] which has been part of the RAF Hack Green Nuclear complex collection since 2010. Externally, these were very similar to the vehicles of the MDP, but had a different emergency light system. Source: Call the Cops 999 on Flickr

Indonesia [33]

In 1994, Indonesia placed an order for three water cannon vehicles, which was approved by the British government. A second order for six water cannons was also approved next year. On 9th December 1996, it was announced that new export licenses were granted for a large number of vehicles, including two Tactica Patrols, two APCs, five EOD vehicles, seven water cannons, and eight command and communication vehicles, totalling 24 Tacticas. The license was granted in advance of the contract, which was signed later. All were delivered before the end of 1997. The company Procurement Services International Ltd acted as a mediator between the Indonesian government and Glover Webb.

Tactica Deliveries to Indonesia

Order Types
1994 3x Water Cannon
1995 6x Water Cannon
1997 2x 4-seater Patrol, 2x 10-seater APC, 5x EOD, 7x Water Cannon, 8x Command & Communication

The deal was not without controversy. At the time, older British armored vehicles were already used against protesters and, in one notorious incident, three students were killed in South Sulawesi in April 1996. This fueled larger protests in June, in which the new Tacticas were used in Bandung. Eye witnesses stated that the water was mixed with teargas. These matters led to outrage among the British public and human rights activists when the new export license was granted in December 1996. It also led to questions in the House of Commons and, on 21st January 1997, a motion was signed by 75 members calling for the licenses to be revoked. However, the British government stated that they found the evidence inconclusive so the licenses remained effective.

In May 1997, the factory’s security was breached by a group of eleven protesters who heavily opposed the sale to Indonesia. At the site, twenty unfinished armored vehicles were decorated with the slogan: “not for export to Indonesia”. The protestors were later detained by the police.

An Indonesian Patrol during an exhibition in early 2021. It stands next to a Barracuda APC that was built in South Korea. Source: Tukang dak jelas on Youtube
A Tactica in the APC configuration, seen during a demonstration. Source:
A water cannon, as used by Brimob. Both the date and source are unknown.
In 2021, at least one Indonesian Tactica received a new paint job. It is unclear if the other vehicles will be repainted too, or if this was done for a specific purpose. Source:

Tactica Deployment

Once delivered, the Tacticas were taken into use by the Korps Brigade Mobil [English: Mobile Brigade Corps, abbr. BRIMOB], which is the combined tactical, paramilitary, and special forces unit of the Indonesian National Police [abbr. POLRI]. The BRIMOB consists of two branches, Gegana, which is responsible for more specific operations, such as EOD, counter terrorism, and intelligence, and Pelopor, with tasks like riot control, SAR, and guerrilla operations.

The new Tacticas were extensively used to quell any anti-government protests, of which the June 1996 deployment in Bandung is a prime example. In early August 2005, two Tacticas, normally stationed in Aceh, were transferred to Jayapura, the capital of West Papua. This was done in light of heightened tensions between the government and Papuans. The police were instructed to prevent people from participating in public protests and actions. The Tacticas were deployed on a number of occasions, for example, against a large demonstration on 12th August and another one on 31st October, which was a protest against the establishment of the Papuan People’s Assembly. Instead of pure water, the Indonesian police added a mixture of salt or liquid soap to achieve the same effect as teargas. In other instances, a color was added to the water, enabling protesters to be identified later, and consecutively arrested or even tortured.

A Tactica during deployment in Jakarta on 20th June 1996, a day that became known as Bloody Gambir [Gambir Berdarah], as more than 120 protestors were [seriously] injured when they tried to flee to Gambir Station. Source: Tapol bulletin no.136, 08-1996
A Tactica Water Cannon and a Barracuda in Jayapura, West Papua, in August 2005. They were deployed on 12th August during a large Papuan protest against the establishment of the Papuan People’s Assembly. Source: Tapol bulletin no.181, 12-2005

On 14th April 2010, a riot broke out in Koja, Tanjung Priok, Northern Jakarta, over a land ownership issue. In the heavy clashes between the mob and the police, three members of the municipal police were killed. Some 130 to 231 people, including police, sustained light to heavy injuries. Many police vehicles were destroyed, but it was the first time an armored vehicle was set on fire too, namely a Tactica water cannon.

The Tactica that burned out completely during a protest on 14th April 2010 in Koja. Its own water tank, with some 4,000 liters, was now of little use. Source: Basuki

Argentina [9]

In the summer of 1997, it was disclosed that nine vehicles were under production for the Argentine United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus [UNFICYP]. In late 1997, these were finished and directly delivered to Cyprus and attached to the United Nations island Mobile Force Reserve [MFR]. The MFR was a multinational infantry company of five officers and a hundred soldiers. The vehicles were stationed at Airfield Camp to the west of Nicosia, but small sections were sometimes sent to other patrol bases in the west [Sector 1] or east [Sector 4].

The T2 ‘UN 525’ seen in 2009 on Cyprus. They were used between late 1997 and mid 2018 to patrol the buffer zone on Cyprus as part of the UNFICYP mission. Source: Gravemaker
An unfortunately low resolution image that uniquely shows all nine Tacticas as they were in service with the UN on Cyprus. The barbed wire on the front could be rolled out as an effective barricade. Source:

UN Registrations

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9
UN 524 UN 525 UN 5?? UN 528 UN 529 UN 530 UN 531 UN 532 UN 5??

After twenty years of service, Argentina decided to pull the vehicles out of Cyprus in 2018. On 21st June 2018, the vehicles arrived in the harbor of Buenos Aires. They were then overhauled and repainted by the Batallón de Arsenales 601 [Eng. Arsenal Battalion 601] and attached to the Compañía de Comandos 603 [Eng. Commando Company 603]. The new registrations range between ‘EA 437330’ to ‘EA 337338’.

The Tacticas were repainted in October 2018 from classic UN white to military green. Source: Dario Centu / Visión Estratégica
An Argentinian Tactica [registration ‘EA 437337’] in 2021 during a parade. Source: Bunker Argentino

Ghana [20]

In 2000, a Ghanese contingent was active in Sierra Leone with UNAMSIL [United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone]. To reinforce this contingent, the UK government agreed to sell 17 Tacticas, divided over 12 APC 14-seaters, armed with a 12.7 mm machine gun; 3 APC 10-seaters armed with a 7.62 mm machine gun; 1 Command APC; and 1 Ambulance. The vehicles were planned to be shipped in four batches to the Sierra Leone capital of Freetown. On 9th July 2000, the first shipment left for Freetown, while the others were planned to leave in September 2000, April 2001, and October 2001. In addition to these 17 vehicles, another 3 Tacticas were shipped to Ghana itself, where they arrived around 13th March 2002 in the city of Tema. These three were all 10-seaters with turrets, but where two had a day/day sight, the third had a day/night sight.

The Ghanese vehicles in UN livery. Seen are the Patrol variant with a 12.7 mm M2 HB machine gun in a turret, the regular APC variant, and the single ambulance in the background. Source: Jane’s Armour and Artillery 2011-2012

Reportedly, the whole deal was worth GBP£9 million. It is unknown if any of the vehicles were damaged during the deployment in Sierra Leone. Presumably, all returned with the Ghanese contingent to Ghana after the mission was concluded. The Tacticas remain in service with the Ghanese Army, but any details about their distribution among the troops are lacking.

The Ghanese Patrol Tactica, next to a Spanish-built URO-VAMTAC, seen at the Armed Forces Open Day held in 2011. Source:
Several Tacticas can be seen here in the foreground during a military parade, sometime around or before 2010. Source: far-maroc forum

Mauritius [9-12]

Sometime in the early 2000s, the government of Mauritius placed an order for a small number of Tacticas of both variants, which were delivered in 2003. The specific number is unclear, as various sources give numbers ranging from seven up to twelve or even fourteen vehicles. Based upon the vehicle registrations, which are known thanks to the various photographs, at least nine Tactica’s have been identified, including four APCs and five Patrol vehicles.

One of the forward-control vehicles of Mauritius [registration GM 7149], which is attached to the Explosive Handling Unit of the Special Mobile Force. Source:
Several Patrol variants during a parade. All Tacticas are in operation with the various units of the Special Mobile Force. Source:
At least three Tacticas which belong to the Special Support Unit. The front two vehicles have the registrations ‘GM 7635’ and ‘GM 7636’. Source:

Norway [12]

In November 2002, the Norwegian Ministry of Defense placed an order for 12 Tactica 2000s in the Explosive Ordnance Disposal [EOD] configuration. They were to be used by the Air Force’s air base security units, with each air base receiving one vehicle. Final assembly, modifications, and training were undertaken by Alvis’s subsidiary in Norway, Alvis Moelv [which existed between 1989-2004].

The local final assembly and various specific requirements gave the Norwegian Tacticas some unique features. The lights were differently designed and placed, additional rear-view mirrors were installed, the number and the size of the windows was changed, and a winch was mounted on the front, below the grille. The ‘Tactica’ nameplate was not mounted on the bonnet, but above the front window.

A Norwegian Tactica, seen at Panserfest in 2015. The Norwegian vehicles featured several unique design choices, such as the different placement of the Tactica nameplate above the front window, the mounting of a winch to the front, and different arrangement of the windows. Source:
Another Norwegian Tactica, seen at the repair plant in Björkvik, summer 2011. Of note is the Kongsberg RWS-N remote-controlled weapon station on the roof that is protected from the elements by a canvas. Source:

All vehicles were delivered throughout 2003. In December 2002, the Norwegian Defense Logistics Organization/Land had signed a contract with Kongsberg for the delivery of weapon control systems for armored vehicles. Eight of these new weapon stations, known as RWS-N, were to be installed on Tacticas. The systems would be used for the destruction of mines and other explosives from a distance, by firing on them.

The fact that eight weapon stations were bought for twelve vehicles is explained by the reforms undertaken by the Norwegian Air Force at the time. The total number of air bases was reduced, so only eight vehicles were required. Of the remaining four vehicles, at least three were reconfigured into armored ambulance versions. The other eight were stationed at the air bases. However, soon after, the demining groups of the air base security units were reassigned to wartime groups, meaning they would be inactive during neutral periods. Since then, the Tacticas have been reassigned from active duty to mobile assets and subsequently stored in military depots, in Romerike in the south, and in Bjerkvik in the north. Therefore, the vehicles are rarely spotted and remain some of the obscurest vehicles in use by the Norwegian Air Force. The vehicles received registration numbers ranging from ‘89001’ to ‘89012’.

One of the four that was reconfigured into the ambulance role, seen in Chad with the MINURCAT mission in 2009-2010. It has the temporary registration ‘UN 01023’. Source:

Norse Tacticas In Chad With MINURCAT

Three of the vehicles that were converted into ambulances saw more use, as they were deployed to Chad with the Norwegian contingent participating in the UN MINURCAT [United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad] mission between 2009 and 2010. The mission was established in September 2007 as an EU-led operation consisting of military and police forces that were meant to protect civilians, refugees, and provide a safer environment in Chad and the Central African Republic, countries which had been destabilized following the civil war in neighboring Sudan. The mission lasted until 31st December 2010.

From the spring of 2009 until May 2010, Norway contributed a field hospital and a well-drilling team to the mission, totalling some 400 people. The field hospital was set up in Abéché in Chad and was staffed by roughly 150 people, as well as additional Serbian personnel. Among the used materiel were the three armored ambulances which allowed safe travel for wounded and sick people. In Chad, the vehicles received special UN registration numbers. The only two observed numbers are ‘UN 01023’ and ‘UN 01024’. Presumably, the third registration number ended with either ‘22’ or ‘25’. It is unknown which original Norwegian registration corresponded to which UN registration.

After the Norwegian contingent returned home, an ambulance with the Norwegian registration ‘89011’ was put on display at the Armed Forces Museum in Oslo. The others have remained in service after deployment, but their status, as of May 2022, is unclear.

A Norse Tactica [‘UN 01024’], next to one of Chad’s numerous Toyotas. Source:
One of the ambulances in Norway around 2020 and still in service. It stands next to a Finnish-built XA-185 which Norway also rebuilt into the ambulance configuration, some time around 2007. Source:
One Norwegian Tactica Ambulance was retired from service after its deployment in Chad and put on display at the Norwegian National Military Museum [Forsvarsmuseet] in Oslo. Source: mbell1975 on Flickr

Saudi Arabia [200]

During the late 1990s, Saudi Arabia wanted to acquire many new armored vehicles, mainly for use to protect facilities near Islamic holy sites, such as Mecca and Medina. They were to be operated by the National Guard, also known as the White Army, which consists of active-duty soldiers, but is not attached to the regular army. Its main task is the protection of the Royal Family from internal rebellion or military coups. The initial demand was broadly set for 60 up to 700 vehicles, but potentially up to a 1,000. Comparative tests between the Tactica and the Tenix Shorland S600 in September 1998 had resulted in the decision to acquire Tactica vehicles. According to both companies, their vehicles had been chosen as they offered a versatile chassis that was and could be adapted to many roles. Due to a lack of information, it is unknown if any vehicles were actually delivered. It is likely that, due to financial problems caused by long-term low oil prices, the order was canceled completely.

Since tensions with Iran and the threat of terrorist attacks kept rising, the National Guard of Saudi Arabia announced a new competition in 2005 regarding a large amount of military equipment worth US$900 million. Four companies were invited: General Dynamics Land Systems, Australian Defence Industries [Bushmaster], Steyr-Puch [armored Pinzgauer], and BAE Systems. The original requirement called for 144 armored personnel carriers, 52 armored command & control vehicles, 36 platoon command vehicles, 17 ambulance and evacuation vehicles, and 12 water cannon vehicles, totalling 261 vehicles.

A year later, in 2006, BAE Systems won the tender, although the number of vehicles was reduced to 200, including 108 APCs, 39 command & control vehicles, 27 platoon command vehicles, 17 ambulances, and 9 water cannon vehicles when the final contract was signed in 2007.

Two Saudi Tactica 2000s in the Dutch harbor of IJmuiden, on their way from Mol in Belgium to BAE in the UK, from where they were further shipped to Saudi Arabia. Source: Alex Miedema

To fulfill this order, BAE largely relied on the Flemish company Mol Cy for production and assembly. The Flemish export license, worth €56 million, was granted in December 2007, and production could commence on 116 armored vehicles and 84 assembly kits. A few vehicles were almost completely assembled, but most were only partially assembled, with the chassis receiving components such as axles, engines, brakes, and similar equipment. After this, they were shipped to the United Kingdom for assembly of the armor.

Delivery to Saudi Arabia began in 2009, and in 2010, 157 vehicles had already been delivered and accepted into service. The other 43 were expected to be delivered in the first quarter of 2011, but it appears the last vehicles were only accepted into service in 2012. In Saudi Arabia, the vehicles first went to the Aircraft Accessories and Components Company Ltd. [AACC], where final testing and quality control took place.

In 2010 training was provided by a Short Term Training Team of the Training Wing of the King’s Royal Hussars. For three weeks, personnel of the 1st Crowd Control Battalion received training in Riyadh, and the 2nd CCB received two weeks training after that in Jeddah. The 2nd CCB is involved in the security of the yearly Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina and proved more experienced than the 1st CCB.

Two rather poor quality images of the training that was provided to the 2nd CCB by the Short Term Training Team of the Training Wing of the King’s Royal Hussars. Source: The Regimental Journal of The King’s Royal Hussars

Deployment to Bahrain

The export of armored vehicles to Saudi Arabia quickly turned into a sensitive and highly criticized sale, both in the United Kingdom and Belgium, mainly because they were not solely used for domestic law enforcement and protection. In March 2011, in light of the Arab Spring, protests broke out in the small state of Bahrain, in the Arabian Gulf. The Bahraini police forces were quickly overwhelmed, and help was called in from the Gulf Cooperation Council. In response, the United Arab Emirates sent some 500 police, while Saudi Arabia sent some 150 armored vehicles, including a large quantity of Tacticas, on 14th March. The next day, a state of emergency was declared and the armored vehicles saw use in the brutal quashing of the protests. Over two months later, on 1st June, the state of emergency was lifted, but the Saudi National Guard maintained a presence in Bahrain.

A Tactica seen during their controversial deployment in Bahrain. Source:
Another shot of all the Tacticas that entered Bahrain. Source: APA/Landov

Ukraine [1-4]

Following the 2022 invasion of Ukraine by Russia, Ukraine received large amounts of military equipment through its allies and special organizations. Since several former-British Alvis Tacticas were available on the market, it was just a question of time when the first of this type would be sent to Ukraine. Indeed, one former MDP vehicle, registered ‘170 HYP’, was outfitted with a stretcher to serve as a medevac vehicle. It arrived in Ukraine around September 2022.

Furthermore, in January 2023, the “Together to the Future UA” charity organized a fundraiser to acquire multiple Alvis Tacticas from a Dutch company called Ex US Army Auction. They were intended as protected ammunition carriers for an artillery unit of ВЧ А4100. It is unclear if the fundraiser reached it goals, but the Tactica(s) was sold. Given its appearance, it was likely one of three Tacticas, earlier offered by a Dutch company called D. van Dam. Therefore, it is possible that these three Tacticas have since gone to Ukraine.

In 2020, the UK reported that two Tacticas had been exported to the United States for museum displays. It is unknown which vehicles these were, or where they have ended up. Three Tacticas, with the additional armor removed were sold and exported to D. van Dam, a company in the Netherlands specialized in the refurbishment and reselling of old army trucks. They arrived no later than 2019 and were still in stock by mid-2022. They were likely sold to Ukraine in January 2023. Source:

Other Evaluators


Since the late 1970s, the Belgian Gendarmerie [NL: Rijkswacht, a paramilitary police force] had been operating 80 BDX armored vehicles. After the Gendarmerie became a civilian police organization in 1992, the number was drastically scaled-down and, near the end of the 1990s, it became clear a replacement was needed. After evaluating a variety of options, the Alvis Tactica, Vickers OMC RG-12, and the Shorland S600 were selected as potential successors, with the S600 eventually winning.


In May 1995, a temporary export license was granted to deliver Tacticas to Türkiye. However, the vehicle, or possibly vehicles, were returned within approximately three months, suggesting an unsatisfactory trial. A second license was granted in October 1996, but appears to not have been used, suggesting Türkiye eventually did not buy any Tacticas.

Notable Former UK Vehicles in Private Hands

One Tactica APC is owned by the UK company Military Vehicle Rental. It is painted sand-yellow and outfitted with smoke grenade launchers. It is registered ‘LS 1018’ and has been featured in the movie ‘Fifty Dead Men’. Source:
One former EOD vehicle, painted black and registered ‘M556 PAG’ is owned by Steven Northam, who owns a Youtube channel and who plans to convert it into a camper van. Source: eBay
One former 1996-built MDP vehicle came into private hands and was tuned by the owner. It was also re-registered as ‘170 HYP’. It was later sold to Ukraine. Seen here is the interior of the former troop compartment. Source: eBay


The Tactica was a successful armored vehicle, both regarding its potential in the internal security role, and as a commercial venture, with approximately 350 vehicles sold to nine countries. During its production run, the Tactica changed producers four times, a feat not achieved by many, but this did not hinder its production. As one of the first recipients, the United Kingdom was also the first to retire all their Tacticas from service, but all the other users retain nearly all in service and will likely remain to do so in the foreseeable future.

Alvis Tactica of the Mauritian Special Support Unit. Illustration by Vinh.
Indonesian Alvis Tactica in APC configuration. Illustration by Vinh.
Alvis Tactica EOD vehicle. Illustration by Vinh.
Norwegian Alvis Tactica. Illustration by Vinh.
Saudi Tactica 2000. Illustration by Vinh.

Specifications (BAE Systems Tactica 2000 APC variant)

Dimensions (LxWxH) 5.9 x 2.4 [2.6 including wing mirrors] x 3.0 m
Crew 2+12 (driver, commander + personnel)
Empty Weight 12.6 tonnes
Gross Weight 14.1 tonnes
Fording depth 50 cm
Turning circle 15.4 m
Wheelbase 3.3 m
Angle of approach 30º
Angle of departure 35º
Ground clearance 34 cm
Max grade 60%
Fording depth 50 cm [max. angle of entry 19º]
Obstacle 30 cm
Engine Mercedes OM 906 LA turbo-charged intercooled diesel, 6,370 cc, 180 kW @ 2,200 rpm, 900 Nm torque @ 1,200 rpm.
Max. speed 120 km/h on-road
Fuel 205 l
Transmission ZF HP 502 automatic 6 forward and 1 reverse speeds
Brake system Fully air powered with 4-way protection valve and split system
Differential locks Independent inter axle and cross axle differential lock capability
Blast protection STANAG level 1
Ballistic protection B7
Crew 2 + 6 (driver, commander + personnel)
Range 650 km
Fuel 167 l
Protection glass 5 cm armored glass + 6 mm Polycarbonate
Accessories 2 x 4 CN-gas/some launcher
Weight 6,500 kg
Indonesian water cannon
Dimensions (LxWxH) 5.020 x 2.045 x 2.320 m
Water tank capacity 4000 l
Crew 4
Engine Perkins Phaser 180Ti diesel, 6-cylinder, 134 kW @ 2,600 rpm, max torque 618 Nm @ 1,400-1,600 rpm


Tactica Brochure, BAE Systems.

Tactica Brochure, Alvis Vickers.

Sipri Trade Registers. 2002. “Appendix 13C. Register of the transfers and licensed production of major conventional weapons, 2002.”

Sipri Trade Registers for UK.

UNROCA registers.

Kraft, Andrej. 2018. “Самый секретный норвежский броневик.”, 22nd August 2018.

Phythian, Mark. 2000. The Politics of British Arms Sales. Manchester: Manchester University Press, p.168.

Brown, Peter. New Armored Vehicles Debut At British Equipment Exhibition ARMOR January-February 1998

Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2002.

Korea Science. August 1999. Saudi Arabia may delay purchase of armored vehicles. p.52.

The King’s Royal Hussars Yearly Journal 2010

Made in Flanders: The end-use of Flemish military equipment, 2012, Nils Duquet,×4-rantis-lapis-baja-korps-brimob-dari-era-90-an/

Internal Security and Riot Control Vehicles, part I and II, Fulvio Bianchi, Military Technology, 2003.

Videos Saudi Tacticas, arriving in Bahrain in 2011. Alvis Tactica medevac in Ukraine, September 2022.

Modern Norwegian Armor

Stormpanservogn CV9030N (CV90 in Norwegian Service)

Kingdom of Norway (1996)
Infantry Fighting Vehicle – 144 Operated

The CV90 is a Swedish-built Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) that was developed in the 1980s. In Swedish service, it mounts a 40 mm Bofors L/70 Autocannon that it still retains to this day. Its armor is capable of protecting against 20 mm autocannons at 500 m for the upper glacis. On the sides and rear, the armor is strong enough to withstand 14.5 mm heavy machine gun rounds, or shrapnel from explosives.

Norway was the first export customer for the CV90s, ordering 104 Mk.1 vehicles in a contract on the 21st April 1994. The first 4 production vehicles were delivered in 1996. Shortly afterwards, it received the designation of “Stormpanservogn CV9030N” (Assault Armored Vehicle).

Two Spv 9030Ns taking part in a training exercise in Eastern Norway. (Photo:

Norway’s Procurement

Starting in the mid-1980s, Norway, a country on the Scandinavian peninsula, began searching for a suitable replacement for their ageing family of NM-135 IFV’s. The importance of having an up-to-date mechanised task force was obvious, due to the Norwegian army’s lack of resources to procure heavier military armament. The NM-135 was considered to no longer be sufficient, being based upon the old American M113 APC. A large trial began in 1992, which featured several contenders for the contract. Norway, a NATO member, was approached by various western countries who wanted to present their vehicle for the trial.

Picture from the Norwegian IFV trials. (Photo:

Competition Contenders

M2A2 Bradley (FMC)

The famous M2 Bradley from the United States, with its superior anti-tank capabilities, was one of the most prominent contenders. Equipped with a 25 mm Bushmaster Autocannon and TOW anti-tank missile launchers, it had the best anti-tank capabilities of all the contenders at the time of the trial. Unfortunately, it was not designed to deal with the deep snow and terrain that is prevalent in Norway, and therefore did not win the trial.

ASCOD (Santas Barbara Sistemas & Steyr-Daimler-Puch)

ASCOD, an acronym for Austrian-Spanish Cooperative Development, is an Infantry Fighting Vehicle designed and developed by Austria and Spain. The Norwegian IFV competition was the first time this vehicle was trialled, and it had too many errors to be successful in the competition. Due to it being very early in development, it suffered from maintenance issues and reliability problems through the entire competition and quickly fell out of favor with the military.

FV510 Warrior (GKN)

The heavily armored British-developed FV 510 Warrior was offered by the GKN. One of its most prominent features was its much heavier armor compared to all other contenders. Its main feature is an indigenous L21A1 30mm Rarden autocannon and a well-protected aluminum chassis.

Krauss-Maffei Wegmann IFV Prototype

The final contender was a light IFV prototype made by Krauss Maffei Wegmann from Germany. Not a lot is known about this prototype because it never entered production. It is commonly mistaken for the TH 495, and was referred to as Puma by KMW, not to be mistaken for the modern in-service Puma, as they are separate developments.

Rheinmetall Prototype IFV. (Photo: Krauss Maffei Wehrtechnik GmbH)

The Trials

The competition was extremely harsh and the vehicles had to undergo trials through the extreme Norwegian winters in order to see which performed best in the most difficult climates Norway had to offer. The CV90 was chosen due to its stellar performance in the cold climate, with the KMW IFV Prototype coming in second in the competition.

Criteria in the competition:

  • Crossing 80 m of swamp
  • Firing (Accuracy)
  • Firing at -15,+15,+30,+45 degrees
  • Deep Snow round 1
  • Deep snow round 2
  • Slalom
  • Circuit, 1.5 m snow, round 1
  • Circuit, 1.5 m snow, round 2
  • Circuit, 6-7 km long, medium terrain
  • Circuit, 4 km long, rough terrain
  • Slope, 1 m snow, round 1
  • Slope, 1 m snow, round 2
  • Slope, 1 m snow, round 3
  • 0.8 m Step
  • 15% Slope, ice
  • 17.5% Slope, ice
  • River, 1 m deep, 10m wide
  • River, 1.7 m deep, 10m wide
  • Cold start, -20 degrees Celsius
  • 370 km drive
  • Track change

The Norwegian Army finalized their order, and purchased the whole package on offer as specified in the features list below. The turrets were built to requested specifications by Kvaerner Eureka AS (a local Norwegian corporation) and the final assembly was done by a Norwegian subsidiary of Hägglunds AB, Hägglunds Moelv AS.

CV90 in participating in a training exercise in Northern Norway. (Photo:

Features of the CV9030N

The Norwegian CV9030N version differed from the Swedish Strf 9040 in several ways. The 40 mm L/70 Bofors Autocannon was replaced by an Mk.44 Bushmaster II 30 mm autocannon and hooked up to a UTAAS Ballistic & computerized FCS system. Appliqué steel was added to the lower glacis, turret front and sides. MEXAS Composite appliqué sets were purchased, and a hatch was included at the rear roof of the chassis. The engine was uprated from 550hp to 606hp to compensate for the heavier vehicle in order to maintain a similar level of mobility. Smoke grenade launchers were improved and turret storage boxes were mounted on both sides of the turret and the rear.

The Norwegian military was not interested in the 40 mm L/70 Bofors due to the lackluster ammo capacity and put operational value into greater consideration. Where a 40 mm projectile would do a good deal of damage, a 3 0mm could fulfill the same role against lighter vehicles and infantry, but with almost doubled ammo capacity. Thus, the L/70 Bofors 40 mm autocannon was dropped in favour of the 30 mm Mk.44 Bushmaster II. The Mk.44 Bushmaster was designed by Alliant Techsystems and has a maximum rate of fire of 200 rounds per minute, with a maximum range of 4 kilometers. Part of the Bushmaster family, the Mk.44 shares parts with the M242 Bushmaster mounted on the M2 Bradley. It offered a wide variety of accessible munitions and more recently, proximity fused ammunition, which is the most modern ammo to date. The Mk.44’s weight is 160 kg, and, while mounted on the CV90 Mk.1, the vehicle could carry 600 rounds.

The Norwegian Ministry of Defence saw the value of a proper fire control system despite the Swedish vehicle missing this important feature, and the Saab UTAAS Universal Fire control system was offered as a part of the full package. Getting a computerized fire control system was far superior to analogue, allowing the crew to fire more accurately and faster than usual. Its performance was sufficient for it to be directly included, without seeking out different ballistic computers. Its modularity was also praised and it is still a part of the CV90 fleet’s basic loadout.

The Norwegian MoD was not entirely satisfied with the basic protection that was provided with the CV9030 Mk.1, and opted for extra steel appliqué on the turret front and sides, chassis lower glacis and side armor. With the extra appliqué, the frontal protection was improved and was able to withstand 30 mm rounds, while the sides could handle 20 mm ones. This effectively gave it sufficient protection against what was at the time potential opposition from Soviet-era Infantry Fighting Vehicles.

CV9030N “Ragnarokk” deployed in Afghanistan. (Photo:

The engine was uprated to 606 horsepower from 550 horsepower in order to compensate for the loss in mobility due to the extra weight.

The MEXAS composite appliqué was also ordered as a part of the package in the case of different missions requiring different loadouts. MEXAS, a ceramic composite package, was very light, and was made to protect against handheld HEAT anti-tank weapons.

The majority of the vehicles were built as Infantry Fighting Vehicles, but a number were also made for Command Vehicle purposes. They were fitted with extra radios, computer stations and map boards in a modified troop compartment. Externally, the variants are practically indistinguishable.

Vehicle Layout

The CV9030 carries a standard complement of three crew members, consisting of the commander, gunner and driver. The commander’s station is in the left side of the turret, and features 6 periscopes which provide all-around visibility. The Commander also has access to the secondary weapon, a 7.62 mm machine gun built into the left side of the turret.

On the right side of the turret sits the gunner, who has access to the UTAAS Ballistic Computer, which features x8 magnification, thermal imaging channel, and an integrated laser rangefinder.

The driver’s station is situated in the lower left of the chassis, next to the engine. The driver’s hatch has three viewports giving fairly good vision to the front of the vehicle, and the central periscope can be replaced with a night vision system.


In 2002, the Norwegian state decided to modernize 17 CV9030N’s in order for them to be used in NATO global peacekeeper missions. By 2004, all 17 vehicles were modernized and redesignated CV9030NF1.

New components in the modernisation package included the “AMAP-M” Mine protection kit, the RVC-01 rearview Camera, an Air Conditioning Unit and Extra Storage Boxes.

Combat Service of the Norwegian CV90

The Norwegian Army has been actively deployed in Afghanistan for several years, with roles varying from training missions to armed deployment of combat vehicles and aircraft. The CV90 has been deployed previously on several occasions by other countries, but in 2007 the combat debut of the CV90 in Afghanistan took place.

CV9030’s during the active deployment in Afghanistan. The two foward vehicles are towing the last one, which appears to have lost a road wheel. (Photo:

In the Ghormach region of Afghanistan, coalition forces were engaged in Operation “Harekate Yolo”, which was an offensive operation to dislodge Taliban forces in three different provinces. The CV9030 Mk.1 was actively used in the operation by Norwegian forces and offered efficient fire support to ground troops of the coalition forces from ranges at which handheld anti-tank weapons could not be effective. The average engagement range during this conflict was around 2 kilometers for the very capable Bushmaster 30 mm autocannon. In a public statement, this gun had a confirmed 45-60 dead Taliban soldiers and many more wounded. Some estimates have mentioned figures as high as 200 wounded or dead insurgents, but the precise details of the engagements have remained a closed subject.

Northern Afghanistan’s Ghormach Region. (Source: Wikimedia)

For a vehicle untested in combat, its debut sparked a huge interest internationally due to its performance. Preceding the events in Afghanistan, only 4 countries had the CV90 in service, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Finland. Since 2005, it has been adopted into service by Denmark, Netherlands and Estonia.

The list of potential operators that have trialled or evaluated the vehicle is fairly long, but in no particular order the countries are The United States of America, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Poland, Lithuania, Croatia and the Czech Republic.

2015 Modernisation

In 2012, a new contract was approved for the modernization of the Norwegian CV90 fleet. 104 vehicles were to be modernized and the fleet expanded to 144 vehicles of various configurations. BAE Systems and Kongsberg Defence & Aerospace collaborated on the modernization by employing the local Norwegian industry to finish the upgrade. The first vehicles were delivered by 2015 and the delivery of all the vehicles was finished in April 2019. The official international designation by BAE Systems for the modernization is CV9030 Mk.3b, as it is an improvement over the CV90 Mk.3

The new Norwegian CV90 Mk.3b family reveal. From left to right, these are the Engineering, Infantry Fighting Vehicle, Multipurpose, Recon and Command variants. (Photo:

The fleet consists of 16 engineering vehicles, 74 Infantry Fighting Vehicles, 21 recon vehicles, 15 command vehicles, with the remainder being multipurpose.

The upgrade was considerable, gutting the old vehicles and giving them a new armor type that has yet to be disclosed to the public. The MEXAS ceramic composite armor pack was replaced with its successor, the AMAP armor pack. The weaponry was retained but was improved with complex optics which included a coaxial camera and a Remote Weapon Station, or RWS. The steel tracks were replaced with rubber ones that had been intensively trialed in Afghanistan. It is the first military vehicle with a built-in recon drone, which allows each vehicle to have a forward recon element available in pressing situations in combat, without risking the vehicle or crew.

The recon variant has a Vingtaqs II Optical mast, which is customizable with different electro-optical sensors, thermal cameras and radar. It can be extended 6 meters into the air and has a range varying from 31 kilometers to 18 depending on the configuration. It also includes laser target designation capabilities. However, its modular nature allows it to be changed into whichever other variant is required by replacing the mission module.

Example view through the RWS with AWARE BMS. (Photo:

The command variant has a modern battle management systems that allow it to lead army details ranging from companies to brigades in size. The vehicles feed other vehicles that are connected to the Battle Management System with information fed by all combat elements, which is then processed into an Augmented Reality tag system through the vehicle’s optics, allowing crew commanders to make more informed decisions.

The AR system was developed by Augmenti Defence and was named “AWARE”. The system allows command vehicles to tag positions and what enemy forces consist of, while at the same time preventing friendly fire as allied vehicles all carry friendly tags. Another feature included in the new Mk.3b is the 360-degree camera system that covers all blind spots for the vehicles.

While the CV90 modernization has been very successful, it has not been without its faults. In 2019, reports were shared that detailed issues with the rubber tracks having a lower lifetime than promised, and that hydraulic oil leaks were common, due to a design flaw where a hydraulic pipe was welded wrongly. Teething issues are still being worked out.

Future Growth Potential

The CV90 in Norwegian service has been very successful on many levels and will continue in service into the future. To quote Army Chief Major General Odin Johannessen (57) of the Norwegian Military:

“The delivery of the CV90 will increase the army’s combat capability through its new and better sensor capacity, more effectors, better protection for the crews, good mobility and better command and control systems”. Furthermore he emphasized that the army (Norwegian Armed Forces) is very pleased with the CV90 and that they will keep pace with new technological developments, which involves small upgrades throughout the vehicle’s service life. The army is pleased with the new CV90 tank.”

With the recent announcement of the CV90 Mk.4 and its newer reverse-compatible components, there is much that can be improved upon in the Mk.3b, which includes the addition of Active Protection Systems, Anti-Tank missiles and an active dampening system for its suspension. Other upgrades include a larger engine, a new transmission and an unmanned turret.

CV90 Mk4 with a 50mm autocannon from Eurosatory 2018. (Photo: Milmag)

Spv CV9030N ‘Tore’, featuring Norway’s ‘Splinter’ Camouflage scheme.

Spv CV9030N in the Desert Camouflage of its Afghanistan deployment.

Illustrations produced by Tank Encyclopedia’s own David Bocquelet, modified by Bernard Baker


Dimensions LxWxH 6.55 x 3.17 x 2.77 m
Weight 23.5 tonnes
Crew 3 (driver, gunner, commander) + 7 passengers
Powerpack Scania DSI14 8-cylinder Diesel engine giving 550 hp (404 kW) with a Perkins automatic 4+2 gearbox
Suspension Torsion bars
Maximum speed 70 km/h
Maximum range 320 km
Armament 30 mm Mk.44 Bushmaster II
7.62 mm ksp m/58C machine-gun
Galix grenade launchers
Total built 345 built

Carl Schulze, CV90 Swedish Infantry Combat Vehicle – History and Technology, Tankograd Publishing
Carl Schulze, CV90 International – In Service with Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Switzerland and Finland, Tankograd Publishing
Clemens Niesner, Norge – Hærens Styrker, Vehicles of the Modern Norwegian Land Forces, Tankograd Publishing
Offiserbladet Edition 1 February 2008