South African APCs

Buffel APC/MPV

Republic of South Africa (1977)
Mine Protected Vehicle / Armored Personnel Carrier – 2,985 Built

“Buffel” The African Buffalo

After the Hippo APC, the Buffel was the second-ever mass-produced V-shaped hull, open-topped, Mine Protected Vehicle (MPV) / Armored Personnel Carrier (APC). It was made and used by the South African Defense Force (SADF) at a time when South Africa was subject to ever more strict international embargoes because of its segregation policies (Apartheid). This was set against the backdrop of the Cold War in Southern Africa, which saw many anti-colonial wars and internal liberation conflicts along political, ethnic, and tribal lines, supported by often competing Eastern and Western benefactors. The Buffel would become a staple vehicle for SADF motorized units in South West Africa (SWA), where it was primarily used for patrol duties along the Caprivi Strip along the northern border with Angola and Counter-Insurgency (COIN) operations. It was designed to be mobile and provide protection against anti-tank mines, small arms fire, and shrapnel. The Buffel was phased out of frontline SADF service during the late 1980s and was relegated to internal security use until the Mamba APC replaced it in 1995.

Buffel MPV/APC`s leaving Angola at the conclusion Operation Displace, August 1988. Published in PARATUS, September 1988. Photograph Martin Botha
South African Border War (1966-1989) political map (country names added). Created by GhePeU for Wikimedia Commons. Used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License


From 1973 onwards, there was a sharp increase in landmine usage by the “South West Africa People’s Organization” (SWAPO), which was fighting an insurgency against South Africa for the independence of SWA. SWAPO operated from bases inside Angola and crossed SWA border over the Caprivi Strip. The SADF at that time had no dedicated mass-produced border-patrol MPV/APC which could protect the occupants against anti-personnel and anti-tank landmines.

Given the increased threat from landmines, the Defence Research Unit (DRU) was tasked by the SADF with improving the crew survivability of its Unimog fleet. The SADF made use of Mercedes-Benz Unimog S trucks, which they bought during the 1960s, of which 200 were upgraded by Messrs United Car and Diesel Distributors (UCDD) during 1973/4 with more powerful OM352 6-cylinder water-cooled diesel engines. The improvement program resulted in the Bosvark (Bushpig).

Bosvark Mk1 APC. Source unknown

The Bosvark featured a V-shaped rear tub which replaced the standard seat section, whilst the driver’s frontal cab section received a Barber deflection plate (mine detonation blast deflection plates). These improvements, while successful, did not protect the occupants from small arms fire. A total of 56 vehicles were produced and used successfully during Operation Savannah (1976). Operation Savannah was the first major military incursion into Angola by the SADF in support of the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA), which was fighting a war against the Cuban and Soviet-backed Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) and the Angolan conventional army, the People’s Armed Forces of Liberation of Angola (FAPLA), for control of Angola.

Post-Operation Savannah, the SADF conducted a needs assessment of their entire fleet. This would later lead to the SAMIL (South African MILitary) range of vehicles. These were specifically designed for the Southern African battle space, requiring long travel distances without logistical support and in which the terrain could damage the vehicle.

Messrs UCDD, who upgraded the Unimogs, came to hear of the new developments and feared a loss in future military contracts. Thus, they set out to redevelop the Bosvark into a dedicated MPV which would function as an APC. Under the leadership of Koos de Wet, who worked at Messrs UCDD, the Bosvark II would take shape. Several improvements were identified and a presentation was made to ARMSCOR early in 1976. A wooden mockup was completed by April 1976 and presented to officials from SADF, ARMSCOR, the Board of Trade and Industry, and the DRU.

ARMSCOR, with the development of the SAMIL range of vehicles, was planning to phase out the Unimog. Subsequent assistance from ARMSCOR for the Bosvark II dried up and the development team had to rely on their own wit and assistance from the DRU to pull the project through. The final prototype was ready by late August 1976, when it presented to ARMSCOR who quickly lost interest and left the demonstration when it came to light that the Bosvark II was not tested.

Bosvark 2 during mobility and wheel displacement testing. With permission from Koos de Wet

Despite this, Messrs UCDD continued its support for the Bosvark II, and via contacts in the SADF and DRU, the necessary tests were arranged on a farm near Zeerust. Representatives from interested groups attended and put the Bosvark II through its paces from dusk until dawn. Some improvements were identified by the development team, but the Bosvark II was certified as tested. Nine more test vehicles were built and delivered to the SADF for testing in the then Northern Transvaal and Ovamboland. A quotation was requested for more vehicles from UCDD. The Defence Research Council (later Chemical Defence Unit) of the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), led by Dr. Vernon Joynt, made further improvements.

In 1976, a live blast test was arranged and Koos de Wet was invited to attend to witness the proceedings. Explosives were placed under the front left wheel of the vehicle. In place of a human occupant, an unlucky male baboon was drafted for SADF service, drugged, and strapped into the driver’s seat. After a massive explosion, the vehicle’s left wheel was nowhere to be found. The baboon survived and was given first aid for a cut on its lip. Whether the baboon received a medal for his bravery is unknown. Attendees were impressed and the experts agreed that the driver and passengers would survive a mine detonation. Koos de Wet was informed that the vehicle would be called the Buffel (Buffalo) if it were placed in SADF service. Both Messrs Busaf Border and Messrs Transverse, which contributed to the development, were excluded by the SADF and ARMSCOR from the Buffel production with no compensation given. Further tests were conducted by the SADF and ARMSCOR throughout early to mid-1977 and improvements made.

61 Base General Workshop (BGW) was often called upon to assist in projects and even at times to manufacture and develop prototypes. 61 BGW would become responsible for the disassembly of the SADF Unimog fleet and preparation for its conversion to the Buffel. The first 19 Buffels left Voortrekkerhoogte in Pretoria, South Africa for the major military logistics and supply base at Grootfontein in SWA during the latter half of 1977. The first Buffels were deployed operationally by late 1978, and some 2985 vehicles would be built over 17 years.

Buffel MPV/APC at Etali military base in South West Africa, 1983/84. It was used during Ops Askari. With permission from Petrus Wiese.

The Buffel Mk1 was fitted with the same Mercedes Benz OM352 6-cylinder water-cooled diesel engine as had been used on the Unimog-based Bosvarks and received a bush guard on the front of the vehicle, which helped protect it from damage caused by driving through the bush. The Mk1A was improved by being equipped with drum brakes and an Atlantis Diesel OM352 6-cylinder water-cooled engine (a licensed copy of the Mercedes Benz engine). The Mk1B and subsequent variants used the same licensed engine and had the drum brakes replaced with disc brakes. The Buffel Mk2 saw the passenger tub being redesigned to feature all-round visibility through bullet-resistant windows, an armored roof, and a rear entry and exit door.

The Buffel would come to serve in virtually all the branches of the SADF until its retirement in 1995. The only country to ever buy Buffels from South African government directly was Sri Lanka (185). All other users bought them through private sector auctions or the United Nations. Only a handful of countries still use the Buffel (or variants thereof), which include Malawi, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Zambia.

Design features

The Buffel was designed to maximize its occupants’ chances of survival when a mine was detonated anywhere under the hull. This was achieved through several key design elements, including high ground clearance, a V-shaped underbelly, and a purpose-built strengthened design that reduced the risk of shattered or buckled hull plates becoming debris.

The African terrain, which in and of itself can inflict severe punishment on a vehicle, necessitates a robust design. The Buffel’s design and simplicity made field repairs post-mine detonation possible. Most parts could be obtained commercially, which made the Buffel’s logistical train shorter and specialized maintenance support in the field unnecessary. The front of the vehicle was strengthened with a bush guard for driving through instead of around small trees and heavy brush, popularly referred to as bundu bashing (bush breaking ability).

Buffel MPV/APC at the War and Peace Revival 2019 show. With permission from Craig Moore


The Buffel’s 4×4 configuration was designed specifically with the African battlespace in mind, which necessitated excellent cross-country mobility. Being wheeled, also required less maintenance than a tracked vehicle. The suspension consisted of a single-coil spring on the front wheels and double coil springs on the rear wheels. The Buffel had a ground clearance of 420 mm (16.5 in) and could ford 1 meter (3 ft 3 in) of water. The high ground clearance and small width made the Buffel somewhat top-heavy, which occasionally caused problems for inexperienced drivers who would roll the vehicle over if they turned too sharply while at speed, or on uneven or wet and slippery terrain. For those not used to the vehicle’s sway and motion, the passenger tub would be nicknamed the “kots koets” (vomit carriage).

The engine produced 125 hp (20.4 hp/t) at 2800 rpm and was coupled to an eight-speed (eight forward and four reverse) synchromesh manual transmission, the transfer box of which was integrated with the gearbox. The transmission design allowed for in-motion changing between 2×4 and 4×4 wheel drive and featured an equal 50% front and rear axle power distribution. The four wheels were 12.50 x 20 in size. They were often filled with water to help absorb the explosive force from a landmine. Conversely, this added around 1.2 tons of weight which negatively affected the vehicle’s range but helped make it more stable to a small degree.

Endurance and logistics

The Buffel had a 200-liter fuel tank which granted it an operational range of 1000 km (600 miles) via road and 500 km (300 miles) cross country. Its maximum road speed was 96 km/h (60 mph) and 30 km/h (19 mph) cross country. A modular design allowed for easier maintenance and reduced logistical requirements. Additionally, the commercial nature of the components made replacement easy and lowered the cost of parts.

Vehicle layout

Buffel MPV/APC driver’s cab at the War and Peace Revival 2019 show. With permission from Craig Moore

The Buffel consisted of three main parts: chassis, armored driver’s cab at the front left of the vehicle, and an armored passenger tub at the center rear. The engine was located on the front right-hand side of the vehicle and the transmission in-between the engine and the armored driver’s cab. The engine and transmission placement facilitated easy replacement in the event of damage due to a mine detonation.

The driver’s cab was surrounded by three rectangular bullet-resistant glass windows and an open-topped roof. The base was wedge-shaped and secured to the chassis via a cable. Early models had no door on the left-hand side, which required the driver to enter through the open-top roof. A single door would be installed on the left side of the driver’s cab to breach this shortcoming and two steel steps. Later variants would also receive a high-density polyethylene roof cover over the driver’s cab. The gear selection was located on the driver’s right side, and a spare wheel was kept to the right of the driver’s cab. The driver’s and passenger’s seating was blast resistant and designed to protect the user’s spine in case of a mine detonation under the vehicle.

Access to the passenger tub was gained via two incremental pairs of steel steps on either side. The passenger tub seating was arranged in two rows of five seats, facing outward from the center. All seats were equipped with harnesses to secure the occupants in the case of a mine detonation or accidental rollover, which would otherwise see them thrown clear of the vehicle. A further feature was an anti-roll bar over the top of the passenger tub, which would stop the passenger tub from rolling over completely. The left and right sides of the passenger tub contained a horizontal panel with circular grooves to allow rifle fire from the passenger’s seating. During contact, the passengers would debus by jumping over the side of the vehicle. The panels were horizontally hinged, allowing them to be opened to ease disembarking. However, this was rarely done while on the move, as the panels tended to flip back up while crossing uneven terrain at speed, which could lead to injury.

Buffel MPV/APC passenger tub seating visible at the War and Peace Revival 2019 show – With permission from Craig Moore

Traditionally, the section leader would sit on the front left to facilitate communication with the driver. The section machine gun team sat at the rear left with the second-in-command (2IC), who operated the rear-facing machine gun. The number one rifleman sat in the front right and manned the front-facing machine gun, while the remainder of the section sat on the right.

On the rear of the passenger tub is a sizable storage box. The passengers used the front to store spare kits, while the top was for the driver’s use. Occasionally, a road-killed warthog would be thrown in the storage box for later consumption. At the rear of the chassis was a water tap that was connected to a 100-liter freshwater tank.

Buffel MPV/APC with storage bin visible at the War and Peace Revival 2019 show. With permission from Craig Moore


The Buffel could protect its occupants against a single TM-57 anti-tank mine blast under the hull, which was equivalent to 6.34 kg of TNT, or a double TM-57 anti-tank mine blast under any wheel. Its V-shaped bottom armored hull design deflected blast energy and fragments away from the driver and passenger tub. The driver’s cab windows were all bulletproof (bulletproof is a misnomer, and should rather be called bullet-resistant). A plastic fuel and water tank was located above the V-shaped underbelly of the passenger tub, to the rear. These tanks would help absorb explosive blast energy from a mine detonation. The armored driver’s cab and passenger tub protected against common small arms fire in theater, which included 7.62 x 51mm NATO and 7.62 x 39mm AK-47 Ball as well as explosive fragments.

Buffel MPV/APC after it hit a TM57 double cheese mine (stacked mines), 1981. With permission from Granger Korff


The Buffel’s standard armament was either a single or dual pintle-mounted 5.56 mm or 7.62 mm Light Machine Guns (LMG), which were located on the forward right-hand side of the passenger tub and/or rear left-hand side. Twin mountings have also been observed, with the gunners receiving a gun shield as well. In open terrain, this placement was convenient, but when the Buffel entered the thick bush, the primary armament being located forward would get turned around by branches, making their effective use difficult.

Rear-facing pintle-mounted 7.62 mm LMG. With permission Japie Oberholster


The Buffel spawned several variants, which include a 2.5-ton Cargo Carrier and an Ambulance.

Cargo Carrier
Based on the Buffel Mk1B, the Cargo Carrier was produced in the early 1980s. It retained the one-man driver’s cab, however, the personnel tub was replaced with an open load bed. It could carry 2.6 tons of cargo over 900 km. A total of 57 were produced.

Buffel Mk1B Cargo carrier. With permission Steyns 4×4, Strand, Western Cape

Using the standard Buffel Mk1B, the Ambulance variant prototype retained the armored one-man driver’s cab at the front. The passenger tub was redeveloped to be enclosed and could accommodate two medical staff, four lying and one sitting patient. Access was gained to the passenger tub via a rear door. It was, however, concluded that the swaying motion of the passenger cab would make the treatment of casualties difficult and very uncomfortable. Subsequently, no orders were placed.

Prototype ambulance variant

When the Buffel was deployed in urban operations to quell the ever-increasing civil unrest and factional fighting (1991-1993) in South Africa, a redesign was needed to improve all-round safety. This involved enclosing the driver’s cab and passenger tub, which were vulnerable to petrol bombs and other dangerous flying objects. The passenger tub’s horizontal drop-down panels were replaced with bullet-resistant glass windows with two firing ports each. A rear access door with a bullet-resistant window was added to facilitate entry and exit from the tub. Additionally, a bullet-resistant window was fitted on the forward right side. The passengers could open hatches on the top of the cab. The subsequent redesign of the passenger tub reduced the available space from ten to eight passengers and the seating faced inwards. The overall improvements allowed better all-round visibility while vastly improving the safety of the passengers. The Moffel was not produced in great numbers, as the Mamba APC was already being developed.

Moffel MPV/APC, photo from Pinterest Solomon

Operational Doctrine

During the South African Border War, the Buffel was used as a dedicated transport and for logistics and COIN operations as part of fighting groups. Sections were transported to designated points, from where they would conduct patrol on foot for between three and seven days before being picked up again or receive replenishment for a further seven days.

A fighting group consisted of between four to six Buffels, which would carry a platoon between them, with one or two Buffels serving as supply/logistics vehicles. Enough food, water, and ammunition were carried for seven days, which covered roughly 600-800 km. Replenishment would be done every six days if the patrol was to extended.


The Buffel was such a versatile MPV/APC vehicle that it was used by every SADF infantry battalion that served in SWA and every major military operation from Operation Rheindeer (1978) to the secession of hostilities in 1989. Additionally, it was used in vast numbers for internal security.

32 Battalion, an elite light infantry unit consisting of Angolans under the command of SADF officers and NCO`s, received Buffels. As they were better known, Three-two was most often used for reconnaissance and offensive operations in Angola. Having received Buffels, they became a light motorised unit and, during Operation Protea (1981), three motorised companies were attached to Battle Group 40. This consisted of one armored car squadron (Eland 90), a 120 mm mortar battery, four anti-tank teams, and two protection platoons (1 Platoon from B company of 202 Battalion and 1 other platoon). Battle Group 40 was tasked to find and destroy SWAPO command, training and logistical bases around the town of Xangongo (70 km north of the SWA border), secure the town and its bridge.

The attack would be carried out by Combat Team 41 from the northeast and Combat Team 42 from the southeast at around 1250 on 24 August. The town was defended by layers of trenches and bunkers which needed to be cleared first, followed by the fort and water tower. By 1730, the bridge was reached and prepared for demolition by the engineers. During the attack, FAPLA and PLAN officers and their Soviet military advisors quickly fled, leaving the soldiers behind. By 25 August, all Battle Group 40`s objectives were reached. On 26 August, they set out to join Task Force Bravo, operating east against PLAN bases.

BTR-60 was captured during Operation Rheindeer on display at the SA Armour Museum. Photo Dewald Venter


SADF soldiers from 32 Battalion and 61 Mechanised Battalion preparing for a patrol near Onjiva with their Buffel MPV/APC during Operation Sceptic. With permission M. Beyl

Operation Sceptic was launched on 10 June 1980 as a lightning attack on a SWAPO base 80 km (50 mi) into South Angola and was supposed to conclude on 16 June 1980. Due to additional arms caches being found in SWAPO territory, it developed into an extended operation and lasted until 30 June 1980, with all SADF personal back in SWA on 1 July 1980. The operation saw the first serious clash be­tween the SADF and FAPLA as well as mechanised elements of SWAPO. SWAPO lost its forward base facilities and 380 dead. Several hundred tons of equipment and sup­plies, as well as many vehicles, were captured by the security forces. Seventeen SADF members lost their lives.

I was part of 1 Parachute Battalion – C Company. That operation was easily six weeks of living on a Buffel. I can’t remember all the details anymore, but we were the last unit still in Angola, and the UN told SA at that time that the SA troops must get out of Angola.

 That “last morning” we went a few miles north to clear a “village” .. upon returning, we took turns to lead the Buffel convoy. The leading vehicle’s troops had to buckle up as mines were a real threat, and any mine detonated would most probably be done by the lead Buffel.

 As the convoy progressed, it became our Buffel’s turn to lead the convoy. We probably only drove 5 km when we detonated a landmine. It was deafening…with dust and sand everywhere…in your ears, nose, and mouth. The Buffel’s front left wheel was thrown clear about 30 m to 40 m, and the vehicle itself a few meters in the air… luckily landing on its remaining three wheels. After a few seconds, we looked at each other and asked if everyone was ok. No one was seriously injured.., except for sore backs.

 The Buffel really is a special vehicle. We dismounted and moved to another Buffel, who turns luckily it wasn’t to lead the convoy. An hour later we made contact with FAPLA at Mangua where they set up an ambush with BTR vehicles. The battle lasted a couple of hours, with FAPLA taking more than 200 casualties.

A. Myburg


The Buffel is the first-ever mass-produced V-shaped hull, open-topped MPV/APC that was mine-protected. Although not very comfortable, it fulfilled its role as an MPV by saving the lives of countless SADF soldiers whose vehicles detonated landmines. It became the backbone of many SADF border patrol and COIN operations. The Buffel served for 17 years until the Mamba MPV/APC replaced it in 1995. Some 582 Buffels would be rebuilt around its driveline to manufacture the Mamba MPV/APC.

Buffel MPV/APC Specifications Mk1B

Dimensions (hull) (l-w-h) 5.10 m – 2.05 m – 2.96 m (16.73 ft – 6.72 ft – 9.71 ft)
Total weight, battle-ready 6.1 Tons
Crew + mounted infantry 1 + 10 mission dependent
Propulsion Atlas Diesel OM352 6-cylinder water cooled engine 125 hp (20.4 hp/t) at 2800 rpm.
Suspension Single coil spring on front wheels and two double coil springs on the rear wheels
Top speed road / off-road 96 km/h (60 mph) / 30 km/h (19 mph)
Range road/ off-road 1000 km (600 miles) / 500 km (300 miles)
Armament 1 x single or double 5.56 mm or 7.62mm pintle-mounted machine gun forward right and/or rear left
Armor 6-7mm (all arcs)

Buffel Videos

Buffel Mine-protected APC

South African Buffel, The War & Peace Revival 2014

ANGOLA THE WAR Documentary Teaser


SANDF Buffel, left view, open bay. The “buffalo” certainly is in the top three world’s ugliest AFV ever designed, but its only raison d’être lays with pure functionality. Dependable and Replaceable, it was for 20 years SANDF’s reference mine-proof APC.
SANDF Buffel, left view, closed bay, pale olive livery.
Buffel Mk2
SANDF Buffel with closed bay. In the 1980s, Mk2 was maintained in service with a rear compartment fully enclosed.
Sri Lanka Unicorn
Sri Lanka Unicorn (local Buffel). The Unibuffel is a locally modify, fully enclosed version.

All Illustrations are by Tank Encyclopedia’s David Bocquelet.


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  • Barnard, C. 2019. 61 Base Workshop, Buffel production. Facebook correspondence GRENSOORLOG/ BORDER WAR 1966-1989. Date 20 Oct. 2019.
  • Beyl, M. 2019. Operation Sceptic. Facebook correspondence SMOKESHELL. 10 JUNE 1980. Date 22 Oct. 2019.
  • Bouwer, M. 2019. Buffel operation doctrine. Facebook correspondence GRENSOORLOG/ BORDER WAR 1966-1989. Date 20 Sep. 2019.
  • Camp, S. & Heitman, H.R. 2014. Surviving the ride: A pictorial history of South African manufactured mine protected vehicles. Pinetown, South Africa: 30° South Publishers.
  • Harmse, K. & Sunstan, S. 2017.South African Armour of the Border War 1975-89. Oxford, Great Britain: Osprey Publishing.
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  • Heitman, H.R. 1988. Krygstuig van Suid-Afrika. Struik.
  • Joubert, K. 2019. Former ARMSCOR head of procurement. Number of Buffels sold internationally. Telephone interview. Date 23 Oct. 2019.
  • Myburgh, A. 2019. Operation Sceptic 1980. Facebook correspondence. 1 Oct. 2019.
  • 2019. Buffel. Date of access: 20 Sep. 2019.
  • Savides A. 2019. Brig Gen (Ret) – 61 Base Workshop. Facebook correspondence. 4 Oct. 2019.
  • Stiff, P. 1986. Taming the Landmine. Alberton, South Africa: Galago Publishing.
  • Swanepoel, D. 2019. Buffel operation doctrine. Facebook correspondence GRENSOORLOG/ BORDER WAR 1966-1989. Date 20 Sep. 2019.
  • van der Linde, S. 2019. Buffel operation doctrine. Facebook correspondence GRENSOORLOG/ BORDER WAR 1966-1989. Date 20 Sep. 2019.
  • van der Merwe, C. 2019. First 19 Buffels. Facebook correspondence GRENSOORLOG/ BORDER WAR 1966-1989. Date 4 Oct. 2019.
  • Widd, P. 2019. Buffel operation doctrine. Facebook correspondence GRENSOORLOG/ BORDER WAR 1966-1989. Date 20 Sep. 2019.

South African Armoured Fighting Vehicles

South African Armoured Fighting Vehicles: A History of Innovation and Excellence, (Africa@War)

By Dewald Venter

During the Cold War, Africa became a prime location for proxy wars between the East and the West. Against the backdrop of a steep rise in liberation movements backed by Eastern Bloc communist countries such as Cuba and the Soviet Union, southern Africa saw one of the most intense wars ever fought on the continent.

Subjected to international sanctions due to its policies of racial segregation, known as Apartheid, South Africa was cut off from sources of major arms systems from 1977. Over the following years, the country became involved in the war in Angola, which gradually grew in ferocity and converted into a conventional war. With the available equipment being ill-suited to the local, hot, dry and dusty climate, and confronted with the omnipresent threat of land mines, the South Africans began researching and developing their own, often groundbreaking and innovative weapon systems.

The results were designs for some of the most robust armored vehicles produced anywhere in the world for their time, and highly influential for further development in multiple fields ever since. Decades later, the lineage of some of the vehicles in question can still be seen on many of battlefields around the world, especially those riddled by land mines and so-called improvised explosive devices.

South African Armoured Fighting Vehicles takes an in-depth look at 13 iconic South African armored vehicles. The development of each vehicle is rolled out in the form of a breakdown of their main features, layout and design, equipment, capabilities, variants and service experiences. Illustrated by over 100 authentic photographs and more than two dozen custom-drawn color profiles, this volume provides an exclusive and indispensable source of reference.
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2 replies on “Buffel APC/MPV”

I am a model builder and wonder if it is possible that you can help me. I am looking for blueprints for the Buffel. I want to built it because we use to use it on the border.




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