Categories
WWII Soviet Tank Destroyers

SU-57 (57mm GMC T48 in Soviet Service)

USSR Soviet Union (1943)
Tank Destroyer – 650 Shipped

The M3 Half-track was a workhorse vehicle manufactured by the United States during the Second World War. It was one of the most widely used vehicles of the war, with many derivatives designed and built on the same chassis.

The T48 Tank Destroyer. Photo: vn-parabellum.com

Origin

The 57mm Gun Motor Carriage T48 was originally requested by the United Kingdom from the United States as a tank destroyer during the Lend-Lease arrangement between the two countries. The British intended to deploy the vehicle in the Western Desert Campaign.
The T48 was based on the chassis of the trusty M3 Half-Track chassis. The back end was converted to carry a 57mm Anti-Tank Gun M1, 122 rounds of ammunition and the crew. The 57mm Gun was a license built copy of the British Ordnance QF 6 Pounder Anti-Tank Gun.
A prototype vehicle was ordered in April 1942, with production starting that December. Production continued until May 1943, with 962 vehicles built. By this time, however, the 6-Pounder was seen as becoming unsuitable for the Anti-Tank role in the long term. In 1942, the 6pdr (57 mm) gun had proved an adequate anti-tank gun. It could penetrate 74 mm of armor at a range of 1 km. Come 1943, however, German tanks had upgraded their frontal armor again and the heavily armored Tiger tank was now deployed on the battlefield. The 6pdr gun was no longer powerful enough to knock out every enemy tank. The gun became surplus to requirements with the introduction of 75mm cannons.
As such, the vehicle was offered to the Soviet Union as part of the Lend-lease military aid scheme. 650 T48s were received by the Red Army who then designated the vehicle SU-57 (Samokhodnaya ustanovka 57, English: Self-Propelled Carriage). In keeping with the rest of their Self-Propelled Guns and Tank Destroyers. Thirty of these vehicles did remain with the British Army though, the subsequent 282 T48s were split between the US and UK who promptly reverted them back to standard M3A1 Half Tracks by removing the 57mm gun and mount.

Soviet Service

The SU-57, or T48, was the only American or British vehicle to be used in combat solely by the Soviets. This refers to the T48 in its 57mm carrying form, and excludes converted vehicles, or units captured by the Wehrmacht. The Soviets were already happy with American Half-Tracks, having received a total 404 of the standard M2 and M3 Half-Track.

The Soviets formed the SU-57s in separate tank destroyer brigades that consisted of three battalions each with 60 vehicles each. They were also used in separate motorcycle battalions, where they would provide welcome firepower to these lightly armored reconnaissance units. The first SU-57 equipped company to see action was the 16th Separate Tank Destroyer Brigade which took part in the August 1943 Dnepr River Offensive in the Ukraine. In August 1944, the SU-57 equipped 19th Brigade fought during the Baranow bridgehead battles in Poland, some units from this brigade then went on to fight in the Berlin and Prague campaigns in April and May 1945.
The Soviet Union gave 15 SU-57s to the Polish military. The vehicles were used by the 7th Self-Propelled Artillery Battery during the 1945 battles in Poland and Germany.
In operation, the vehicle would take up a hull-down position behind a berm or ridge, with just the gun exposed. They would often be used as a supporting, second line vehicle making use of the 6-Pounders excellent mid to long range performance.
A few of the vehicles did fall into the hands of the Wehrmacht, with a small number being used by the 14 Kompanie, Grenadier Regiment 105 of 72 lnfanterie-Division.

Links, Resources & Further Reading

Osprey Publishing, New Vanguard #11: M3 Infantry Half-Track 1940-73
Osprey Publishing, New Vanguard #247: Soviet Lend-Lease Tanks of World War II
Krause Publications, Standard Catalog of U.S. Military Vehicles. (2nd Edition), David Doyle
Presidio Press, Half-Track: A History of American Semi-Tracked Vehicles, R.P. Hunicutt


An SU-57 covered in Russian snow.

Example of a captured T48 in service with the Wehrmacht. Both illustrations by Tank Encyclopedia’s own David Bocquelet.

Other Lend-Lease Tank Destroyers

The Soviet Union also received 52 3-inch GMC M10 Wolverines. A considerably smaller number for reasons unknown. These M10s were formed into two self-propelled artillery regiments known as SAPs (Samokhodno-artilleriyskiy pol). The 1223rd SAP Regiment served with the 29th Tank Corps of the 5th Guards Tank Army, 3rd Belorussian Front during the 1944-45 in Belarus, the Baltics and East Prussia. The 1239th SAP Regiment was the second regiment to be formed with the M10s. They served with the 16th Tank Corps (Later becoming the 9th Guards Tank Corps) of the 2nd Tank Army, 1st Belorussian Front. They served on the 1944-45 Belorussian and Polish Campaigns. Due to their impressive combat performance, the Regiment was honored with the redesignation 387th Guards SAP Regiment.
A small number of 76mm GMC M18 Hellcats were also received. These vehicles were not as popular due to their thin armor, and very few were ordered.

Conclusion

The SU-57 did not make a huge impact to Soviet War effort but they were put to good use and liked by the crews outfitted with the vehicles. It succeeded in filling a, albeit small, gap in the Soviet Union’s armored force while it recovered from the huge losses sustained in Germany’s Operation Barbarossa. It was a capable vehicle that allowed production of the USSR’s own tank destroyers such as the SU-76 and 85 to get back on its feet.
Quite a few of these vehicles survive various museums today. They can be found at the Central Museum of the Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945, Park Pobedy, Moscow Russia and the Kubinka Tank Museum, Russia. One is also on display at the Polish Army Museum, Warsaw.

An article by Mark Nash

SU-57 from the separate battery of the 4th Motorcycle Regiment/6th Tank Army. Romania, Summer 1944. Photo: www.armchairgeneral.com

SU-57 from the 4th Motorcycle Regiment in Bucharest, August 1944. Photo: vn-parabellum.com

SU-57 (T48) specifications

Dimensions 5.62 x 1.94 x 2.02 m (18’5″ x 6’4″ x 6’8″)
Total weight, battle ready Aprx. 10 tonnes
Crew 4 (Driver, Commander, Gunner, Loader)
Propulsion White 160AX/IHC RED 450, 147/160 bhp
Armament 57mm Anti-Tank Gun M1 (2.24 in), 122 Rounds
Armor 6 to 12 mm (0.24-0.47 in)
Total production 962, 650 sent to USSR
For information about abbreviations check the Lexical Index
Categories
WWII Soviet Tank Destroyers

T-34 with ZiS-4 57mm

Soviet Tanks ww2 Soviet Union (1941) Tank destroyer – 10 built

Upgrading a Legend

As early as 1940, the Red Army was searching for new and improved guns to install onto their latest tanks. The T-34 “Exterminator” (or T-34/57, both are common designations, but indeed, unofficial) was a standard T-34/76 chassis with the new and improved ZiS-4 57 mm (2.25 in) gun. However, it was not until the autumn of 1941 that this vehicle would see action, with small numbers of this tank defending the heart of the USSR – Moscow.
The prototype of the 57 mm ZiS-4 tank gun - Credits: Central Archive of the Russian Ministry of Defense
The prototype of the 57 mm ZiS-4 tank gun – Credits: Central Archive of the Russian Ministry of Defense

Design Process

In 1940, the standard 45 mm (1.77 in) K-20 and Model 1934 guns were deemed inadequate for modern anti-tank duties. Therefore, Factory Number 92 was ordered to begin work on a new gun with a caliber between 55 and 60 mm (2.17-2.36). It was meant for use as the latest standard anti-tank gun. On May 19th, 1941, testing began on the new 57 mm ZiS-4 anti-tank gun. This gun was designed by V.G Grabin, and was based on the ZiS-2 57 mm (2.25 in) gun. It could fire a 3.14 kg warhead. At a range of 1000 m (1100 yd), the ZiS-4 could penetrate 70 mm (2.76 in) of armor at a 30-degree angle. This gun was also to be modified for mounting on the new T-34.
A prototype T-34 was tested with this new gun installed. It was almost identical to a standard production Model 1941 tank, except with a longer barrel and a flat gun mantlet nose. The trial results were highly impressive. However, noticeable wear was spotted on the gun after only 100 rounds. In addition, the gun had very poor accuracy due to improper rifling on the barrel. This was rectified when the barrel rifling was re-bored. The 57 mm armed T-34 was tested again later and accepted for production in July 1941.
A right-side view of the T-34/57 prototype at the Artillery Research Testing Grounds in the spring of 1941. The gun is at maximum elevation - Credits: Central Archive of the Russian Ministry of Defense
A right-side view of the T-34/57 prototype at the Artillery Research Testing Grounds in the spring of 1941. The gun is at maximum elevation – Credits: Central Archive of the Russian Ministry of Defense
Production of this T-34 variant soon commenced, but ended in September, after 10 examples had been produced. The official name of these tanks in Soviet documents was simply “T-34 with ZiS-4”. However, post-war, these tanks gained the new name: Exterminator. While this can be used to name the tank, it is technically incorrect. These tanks are also sometimes called the “57” or “T-34/57”. The cancellation of the production run was due to may factors, including inadequate resources to manufacture the guns and the lack of AP shells for the 57 mm (2.25 in) ZiS-4. Most importantly, the RKKA did not want to disrupt production of a vital tank such as the T-34. After all, between June 1941 and September 1941, the USSR had lost 20,000 tanks. In October 1941, the number of Soviet tanks fell (for the first and only time) below that of the German army.
Another photograph of the first T-34/57 prototype. Note the flat recoil mechanism armor on the gun nose.
Another photograph of the first T-34/57 prototype. Note the flat recoil mechanism armor on the gun nose. On production vehicles, the gun mantlet would be identical to regular T-34/76 tanks, except for a small ring at the base of the gun.
However, the Red Army was still very interested in the installation of a 57 mm (2.25 in) gun onto T-34 tanks. In 1943, the project was restarted. This time, the ZiS-4M gun was installed in a T-34 model 1942/43 tank with the 6 sided “nut” turret. This tank was sent to the front on August 15th, 1943 with the “Special Tank Company 100”, but it did not see combat. After this, the 57 mm (2.25 in) gun concept was dropped, as the new D-5 85 mm (3.35 in) gun was already in production.
The only T-34 Model 1943 with a ZiS-4M gunThe only T-34 Model 1943 with a Zis-4M gun
The only T-34 Model 1943 with a ZiS-4M gun. These photographs were taken during the Kursk/Orel offensives. 

Chassis and Types

The basic prototype of the T-34 Exterminator was a standard Factory No.183 (Kharkov) tank. It had a welded turret, the early driver’s hatch and the Model 1940 POP periscope in the turret hatch.
A column of T-34/76 tanks produced at Kharkov
A column of T-34/76 tanks produced at Kharkov. Note the early pattern track, the cast turret and the early pattern driver’s hatch. 
Unfortunately, not much information exists of the individual tanks. However, some images of some of the used chassis have survived. The 57 mm (2.25 in) guns were sent to plants 183 (Kharkov) and 264 (STZ Stalingrad). The most famous and recognizable T-34 “Exterminator” was a late 1941 produced 183 tank, with the new driver hatch, a cast turret, simplified tow hard points and V-type 41 track. However, a supposed photo shows a tank with the welded model 1941 turret.
A standard T-34/76 produced at Stalingrad (STZ 264)
A standard T-34/76 produced at Stalingrad (STZ 264). This tank served with the 116th Tank Regiment in April 1942.

Killer on the prowl

T-34 Exterminator tanks were most notably fielded during the Battle of Moscow. The ten tanks, belonging to the 21st Tank Brigade, and were on the Kalinin front. On the 15th and 16th November 1941, this brigade claimed to have destroyed 18 enemy tanks in ambushes. In addition to this, on October 14, 1941, the 21st Brigade was deployed in the region of the Demidov rail station and a day later it was ordered to advance on Turchinovo-Pushkino-Troyanovo and make a flank strike on German troops deployed near Kalinin.
Senior Political Officer E.Gmurya drove his tank along the Volokolamsk highway and met a large column of German trucks. It is claimed that he single-handedly destroyed the whole column that stretched for 3 km (1.8 mi) in length. After that, he advanced with haste towards a recently captured German aerodrome and destroyed a bomber aircraft parked there. The tank was knocked out by German artillery and two crew members were killed. Politruk Gmyrya and Sergeant Ishenko escaped and rejoined the Red Army. It is unknown whether this tank was a “57”.
Strangely, 8 ammunition-less T-34 “Exterminators” were claimed to have been fielded with the 8th Tank Brigade on the Kalinin front on October 19th, 1941. This seems unlikely, given that ten T-34/57s were made.
After 4 days, the 21st Tank Brigade claimed to have killed about 1,000 soldiers, destroyed 34 tanks, 210 trucks and 31 guns. However, the brigade took heavy losses, including the Commander – Hero of the Soviet Union, Major Mikhail A. Lukin and the Commander of the 1st Battalion, Hero of the Soviet Union Captain M. P. Agibalov.
It is notable that one Soviet tank ace, Jr.Lt. Gorobetz S.H, was deployed with the 21st Tank Brigade and is credited with 7 kills. The most famous T-34 “Exterminator” is the so-called “white 20”, commanded by major Mikhail A. Lukin, and was lost at Troyanovo.
It would appear that no T-34 Exterminators survived the battles around Moscow. However, the tanks had made a name for themselves.
White 20 commanded by Major Mikhail A. Lukin
White 20 commanded by Major Mikhail A. Lukin. Notice the cast turret, the improved tow hard points and the V-type 41 track. This is by far the most famous Exterminator T-34 built.

Survivor?

There is one T-34 Exterminator on exhibit. However, this is a replica made from parts of real STZ T-34, a hull and wheels from an 183 T-34 and a dummy barrel. While not a poor replica, it does not accurately depict an Exterminator tank as it would have appeared in 1941.
museim peice with stz turret
The replica T-34 Exterminator is an interesting mix of parts, including an STZ turret and an 183 hull.

An article by Frankie Pulham

Sources

T-34 medium tank (1939-1943) – Mikhail Baryatinskiy
T-34: The First Complete Encyclopedia – Maxim Kolomiets
On Panzerserra
ww2 soviet armour
All ww2 Soviet Tanks Posters

Regular T-34 Exterminator in 1941, commanded by Major Mikhail A. Lukin
Regular T-34 with ZiS-4 in 1941, commanded by Major Mikhail A. Lukin.T-34 Exterminator model 1943. This prototype was sent to the front in August 1943, but never saw action due to the 85 mm (3.35 in) armed T-34/85 coming into service.
T-34 with ZiS-4, model 1943. This prototype was sent to the front in August 1943, but never saw action due to the 85 mm (3.35 in) armed T-34/85 coming into service.

Gallery

The famous White 20 T-34 Exterminator
The famous White 20. There is some speculation that the other tanks in this unit were labeled 20-29, but there is no evidence supporting this claim. This tank is the only known example of a T-34 Exterminator with the white divisional markings.
The earliest photo of White 20, before the snow started to fall
The earliest photo of White 20, before the snow started to fall. The V-type 41 track is very obvious in this photograph.
White 20, note the ring at the base of the gun
White 20, note the ring at the base of the gun.
Notice the standard T-34 vision hatch
White 20. Notice the standard T-34 vision hatch. 
Again White 20. This image indicates that there was a radio installed on the tan
Again White 20, after heavy snowfall. This image indicates that there was a radio installed on the tank. Only 1 in 5 tanks were equipped with a radio.
This T-34/57 candidate has been in the midst of a great deal of discussions.
The second confirmed T-34 with a 57mm gun, lost just after the first snows fell. This photograph is too blurry to make out the major details, however the long barrel can be clearly seen.

The same tank as previous. This angle, while blurry, shows that the turret is the Kharkov made “8 Bolt” simplified turret.
A subtly different type of T-34, with a welded turret, the early track and the early driver vision hatch
The same machine as previous, all be it with no snow. Some features can now be more easily seen, such as the strengthening patches below the vision ports on the turret. The track could either be the early 550mm track, or the V type 41 track. 
The T-34/57 prototype during obstacle trials. The gun, which very nearly touches the ground, is level with the tank, or a 0 elevation - Credits: Central Archive of the Russian Ministry of Defense
The T-34/57 prototype during obstacle trials. The gun, which very nearly touches the ground, is level with the tank, or at 0 elevation – Credits: Central Archive of the Russian Ministry of Defense

Sidenote: Other tank with 57 mm guns

The ZiS-2 57 mm gun was used on several vehicles, including as the famous ZiS-30 assault gun. This was simply a T-20 Komsomolets tractor with the ZiS-2 gun mounted on the rear. Roughly 130 of these little machines were converted, and were meant for nothing more than making the ZiS-2 mobile – their tactics reflected a field gun more than an AFV. The Komsomolets tractor was outclassed by 1941 and was only suited for artillery towing. While not ideal for the mobile artillery/anti-tank role, they served well. All but a hand full were lost in the battles at Moscow.
A ZiS-30 Assault Gun in action around Moscow.
A ZiS-30 Assault Gun in action around Moscow. Roughly 130 of these vehicles were made. Only a handful survived the battles.

Sidenote: Misidentified photos

This photograph is often presented as one of the T-34/57 prototype. However, comparison with the actual photos of the prototype reveals that the barrel is too short and too wide to be a 57 mm ZiS-4. It is in fact a photograph of the prototype of the T-34 fitted with the F-34 76 mm gun
This photograph is often presented as one of the T-34/57 prototype. However, comparison with the actual photos of the prototype reveals that the barrel is too short and too wide to be a 57 mm ZiS-4. It is in fact a photograph of the prototype of the T-34 fitted with the F-34 76 mm gun.
This T-34 is also often represented as being an Exterminator. However, the length and width of the barrel are not consistent with those of other T-34/57s on record. A circle on the mantlet seems to be visible, but due to the low-resolution of the image, it might very well be an illusion or a photoshop
This T-34 is also often represented as being an Exterminator. However, the length and width of the barrel are not consistent with those of other T-34/57s on record. A circle on the mantlet seems to be visible, but due to the low-resolution of the image, it might very well be an illusion or a photoshop.
This image seems to be of the same vehicle as the above. It is clearly a regular T-34/76. The white circle divisional marking is also visible in the above photo, as seems to be the 7 in T-17
This image seems to be of the same vehicle as the above. It is clearly a regular T-34/76. The white circle divisional marking is also visible in the above photo, as seems to be the “7” in “T-17” – Picture from Ebay.
A German soldier posing with an abandoned T-34 which might be an Exterminator
This tank has been quoted as a “57”, however it is clearly a 76mm gun. The barrel is too thick, there is no ring around the base of the barrel and the barrel on this tank has a buldge at the tip, which indicates this to be an F-34 gun.

T34/57

Categories
WWII Soviet Tank Destroyers

ZiS-30

Soviet Union Soviet Union (1941) Improvised light self-propelled anti-tank gun -101 built

Another improvisation

The ZiS-30 came to be in 1941, because the Soviets lacked everything but manpower to fight the war. They desperately needed tanks, but especially AT vehicles in order to halt the German advance which was gaining ground as a result of their superior armored divisions. Under the direction of P. F. Muravyova at Plant Nr. 92, a special team came up with the idea of mounting a gun onto a tractor in order to create one of the many improvised Soviet tanks of WWII, which would hopefully help to stop the ferocious German onslaught. This particular tank had some more substantial combat success compared to other improvisations such as the NI and KhTZ-16, and is perhaps the most well-known improvised vehicle of the war. Despite relative fame, it must be remembered that even the most optimistic among the Red Army leadership had to admit its many shortcomings.
A ZiS-30 with its crew.
A ZiS-30 with its crew.

Design process

The first few weeks of the war saw the greatest need for the Red Army to have mobile AT and AA vehicles. As a result, on July 1st, 1941, People’s Commissar of Arms, Boris Vannykova issued desperate measures to three different weapons producing factories. These factories were ordered to take the weapons that they produced and mount them onto a chassis of some sort – Plant Nr. 4 (ZiK in Sverdlovsk) made a 37 mm (1.46 in) AA gun, Plant Nr. 8 made an 85 mm (3.35 in) AA and AT gun, and Plant Nr. 92 (ZiS in Gorky) made a 57 mm (2.24 in) AT gun. The idea was for these plants to turn available vehicles, such as artillery rough-terrain transporters or crawler tractors, into makeshift tanks by fitting them with an armored cab and their respective guns. Projects were to be submitted by 15th July 1941 in order to be inspected.

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This deadline was far too ambitious. Plant Nr. 92 (ZiS) proved to have the best design, but it came late. They had a special team led by P.F. Muravyova who oversaw the intensive work, but they missed the deadline. In late July, two vehicles were produced and they were presented at the factory gates – the ZiS-30 and ZiS-31. The first featured the ZiS-2 57 mm AT gun (the same as was installed on the A-20 prototype) mounted on a Komsomolets tractor. The second vehicle used the same ZiS-2 gun but was mounted on a GAZ-AAA truck.
Comparative tests conducted in July and August showed that the VMS-31 truck was more stable and had higher accuracy compared to the VMS-30 tractor, but the VMS-30 tractor was more weather-resistant and had better off-road capabilities. As a result, the VMS-30 tractor was accepted into production under the designation “ZiS-30”. On September 1st, 1941, Plant Nr. 92 was meant to start mass production, but there was a huge problem.
Plant Nr. 37 in Moscow, the sole producer of the Komsomolets tractor, switched to tank production in August, and ZiS-30 production in Plant Nr. 92 could not begin without a sufficient supply of tractors. Therefore, the factory was only able to take tractors that had come from the front line. Due to this delay, production finally started on 21st September.
A rear view of a ZiS-30 and its crew operating it.
A rear view of a ZiS-30 and its crew operating it.
By October 15th, 1941, the plant manufactured 101 ZiS-30s, and the prototypes, VMS-30 and VMS-31, were reportedly sent out to fight also. To balance the gun on the precarious chassis, a spring mechanism was fitted and sights were also mounted on the gun for direct fire. The gun could fire up to 25 rounds per minute in theory, but including aiming, this only effectively reached 15 rounds per minute. The DT machine gun in a ball-mount was kept from the Komsomolets and was, of course, mounted to the right of the driver for engaging infantry.
After October, the lack of tractors meant that the factory had to improvise once more. They looked into taking the ZiS-22 half-track vehicle and fitting an AT gun to the back. One prototype was built and tested in November 1941, called the VMS-41, and it showed good results. However, there were problems in producing of the 57 mm ZiS-2 gun due to the complexity of the gun’s long barrel and high overall cost. They would not be able to make a sufficient number of VMS-41s, and after this realization, all work was dropped the same month.

The ZiS-30 in action

The first batch of ZiS-30s was handed over to troops in late September 1941. They were sent to the front in armored brigades to the west and south fronts. In their first battles, it was said that they fared well. The Chair of the Central Committee of Artillery Administration (GAU), E. Satelya, described their deployment as “successful combat“. However, this may only be relatively speaking for an improvised tank.
Despite initial enthusiasm, GAU was later forced to admit on 15th April, 1942 that “the [tank] is unstable, the chassis is overloaded, especially on the rear, there is little ammunition available, there is weak protection for the driver, and shooting is often performed without proper deployment because of a lack of time.
Many of these tanks appear to have been used for ambush attacks and were camouflaged with paint in various patterns. One of the more common camouflages was a simple white for winter conditions, but some three-tone summer camouflages were applied.
By summer, 1942, almost all of the ZiS-30s that were produced had been destroyed. Some were lost in fighting, and some just broke down beyond repair.
A knocked out ZiS-30 in a rural village.
A knocked out ZiS-30 in a rural village.

Sources

“Russian Tanks of World War II”, by Tim Bean and Will Fowler
Photographs: Wikipedia.

ZiS-30 specifications

Dimensions (L-w-h) 3.45 x 1.86 x 2.23 m (11.3 x 6.1 x 7.3 ft)
Total weight, battle ready 4 tonnes
Crew 4 or 5
Propulsion 6-cyl. carburetor, 50 hp
Speed (road) 40 km/h (25 mph)
Range 250 km (155 miles)
Armament 57 mm (2.24 in) ZiS-2 AT gun
7.62 mm (0.3in) DT machine gun
Armor 7-10 mm (0.28 – 0.39 inches)
Total production 101

Camouflaged ZiS-30, southern sector, summer 1941
Camouflaged ZiS-30, southern sector, summer 1941
ZiS-30 in the autumn of 1941
ZiS-30 in the autumn of 1941
ZiS-30 in the Moskow sector, December 1941.
ZiS-30 in the Moskow sector, December 1941.

Gallery

A clear view of the ZiS-30 with camouflage painted onto it.
A clear view of the ZiS-30 with camouflage painted onto it.
A ZiS-30 in winter camouflage.
A ZiS-30 in winter camouflage.
Another ZiS-30 being operated by its crew, possibly during an ambush attack.
Another ZiS-30 being operated by its crew, possibly during an ambush attack.
A clear view of the ZiS-30 in profile.
A clear view of the ZiS-30 in profile.
The VMS-41 prototype. It would have also featured a DT machine gun next to the driver, but it is not mounted in this photograph.
The VMS-41 prototype. It would have also featured a DT machine gun next to the driver, but it is not mounted in this photograph.
Another knocked out ZiS-30 as part of a column.
Another knocked out ZiS-30 as part of a column.
tanks posters - Soviet Armour 1941
Soviet Tanks in June 1941 (Operation Barbarossa)