Cold War Soviet Other Vehicles

Ural 4320

Soviet Union
Heavy Truck (1976) – 10,000 built

The 6×6 Ural heavy duty beast of burden

The long legacy of ZIL (Ural)

The Ural-4320 is a general purpose off-road 6×6 vehicle, produced by the Ural Automotive Plant. The plant was created in 1941 at Miass, Chelyabinsk Oblast in the wave of moving industries to the east by Stalins order, including the giant complex of “tankograd” built at break neck speed at the foot of the Uralic mountains, far from reach by the German army.
UralAZ (nothing to do with UralMash) still exist today and is a relativly healthy company which produced trucks for the military. It was a dependency of ZIL (1916), moved to this region.
During the war, the company produced notably the unbiquitous ZIS-5 (about 1 million produced), ZIS-6 used as a 6×6 base for the BM-13 Katiusha (20,000+ built) and ZIS-22/42M half-tracks series. The tradition was maintained during the cold war with a wide variety of military 4×4 and 6×6 models some used as self-propelled rocket-launchers. They have seek also ad-hoc military used as gun platforms in many conflicts around the globe, insurrections and civil wars due to its cheap and reliable base, all-terrain capabilities and heavy duty payload. Some were also armored 1 2.

Ural 375
Precursor: An east-German Ural 375
another precursor, the Zil-131 also used as the 9P138 rocket launcher system
another precursor, the Zil-131 also used as the 9P138 rocket launcher system

Development of the Ural 4320

Introduced in 1976, the 4320 is still, remarkably, in production today. The wheel arrangement was designed for heavy dury cargo, people and trailers, on roads and off-road with the adequate suspensions sytems. The vehicle is well-known to serve as a base for for the BM-21 “Grad” rocket launcher system, successor of the ww2 Katiusha. It was a diesel-powered development of the Ural-375D. The latter also called Ural-375 was produced in the 1960-70 decade and sold to 10 countries outside USSR. It was itself replacing the 1958 ZiL-157, replacing the postwar Zil 121/151. One of these developments was the BTR-152. UralAZ celebrated a total production of 530,000 trucks and 1.3 million of truck engines in 1972 and manufacture of the Ural 375H and 377H continued until 1983. In 1977 the new 5-tonne truck Ural-4320 was designed. However with the end of the cold war, and despite in 1987, UralAZ celebrated its millionth truck, the company was turned into a private venture and focalised on the civilian market.

Design of the Ural 4320

There is a single one chassis, 6×6, declined with two engines. The 11.2L YaMZ-236M2 V6 turbo diesel and 14.9L YaMZ-238M2 V8 diesel, coupled with a transmission 5-speed manual. In dimensions it was 7,366 mm (290.0 in) in lenght, 2,500 mm (98.4 in) width, and the Height was variable, from the 2,715 mm (106.9 in) in open bay, to 3,005 mm (118.3 in) with tent. Higher versions exists when the armament and armor or special cabs are used. It was still very close to the dimensions of the ZIL-131 and Ural 375D (7,350 mm x 2,960 mm x 2,980 mm, Curb weight 8,400 kg).
Still very close to the model 375, the Ural 4320 had a KamAZ petrol engine which replaced the Ural-375-740 V8 diesel KamAZ (10852 cm3, 210HP). Compared to the 375:

Ural 375 specifications

Ural 4320 specifications

  • Seating Capacity (cab): 3
  • Curb weight: 6700 kg
  • Payload: 5000 kg plus trailer 5000 kg (on road), or 3,500 kg plus trailer 4000 kg off road.
  • Suspension: solid axles with leaf springs.
  • Engine: V8 gasoline (carburetor) ZIL-130
  • Displacement: 6,960 cc (bore 3.94″, stroke 4.36″)
  • Compression Ratio: 6.5:1.
  • Top speed: 80 km/h
  • Brakes: drums, with pneumatic control.
Cab design: Forward-mounted engine
Seating capacity (in cab): 3 3
GVWR: 15,300 kg (33,750 lb) 14,975 kg (33,000 lb)
Weight of load carried: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb) 5,000 kg (11,000 lb)
Suspension: solid axles, leaf springs, rear wheels at balance-cart
GVWR of towed trailer: 11,500 kg (25,350 lb)
Top speed: 82 km/h (51 mph) 75 km/h (47 mph)
Engine: liquid-cooled V-8 diesel V6 diesel
Power: 240 PS (177 kW) 180 PS (132 kW)
Transmission: five-speed gearbox, two-speed distributor box with
interaxle locked differential.
Body: metal, with tailgate, removable bows and a canopy, two foldable
side and one removable middle benches.
Seating capacity: 27 27

The chassis has good ground clearance, ideally suited for Siberia and bad roads in general, snow, sand or big rocks. It is supremely reliable (at least by Soviet standards, as it met little success on the export market), easy to repair and maintain. from the 1990s the Ural-4320 (and 5557) saw their headlights relocated on the bumper but after a special order for the Ministry of Defence, a narrow bumper and wing-mounted headlights both sides of the grille made their apparition on the production line.
The model is able to towing trailers or artillery pieces Western counterparts. It has a full-time all wheel drive and centralized tyre pressure system. With preparation it can ford water obstacles up to 1.75 m deep and operate in extreme climatic conditions, ranging from -50°C to +50°C.

Other facts & figures about the Ural 4320 truck

Variants of the Ural 4320

The civilian versions mostly found in the countryside and remote areas of Siberia are fire, garbage and logging trucks.
The 1BA15/URB-3A3 drilling system are used for water, oil and gas drilling, also based on the same chassis.
In 1981, based on a 4320 model truck 8 tons Ural-5920 was presented with a Caterpillar engine.
Ural-4320: Basic model, metal cab and 7.9 tons payload
Ural-4320-19: Long chassis, 12 tons payload (normally coupled with the YaMZ-236M2 engine.
Ural-43203: Reinforced front suspension
Ural-43204: Reinforced chassis for increased payload
Ural-43206: 4×4 with 180 hp JAMZ-236 diesel, 4200 kg payload.
Ural-43206-41: 4×4 Sub-variant with the 230 hp JAMZ-236NE2 turbodiesel
Ural-43206-0551: 4×4 variant with a 4-door cab, 3600 kg payload
Ural-44202: Truck tractor, semi-trailer 4×4 often used as logging truck.
Ural-5557/55571: 12–14 m wide chassis development and low-profile tires (CTIS) for special uses.
Ural-4320/5557 40/41 Three seat, two-door civilian cab
Ural-4320/5557-44 Same but two-door cabin and sleeping bed above
Ural-4320/5557-48/58/59 Updated model with better cabin and large volume bonnet, sprung driver’s seat


Angola (Unknown), Colombia (800), Cuba (Unknown), Greece (Unknown), Guatemala (Unknown), Laos, Mexico (73 in 2008), Philippines (20 donated 2017), Russia (Unknown, about 8000+), Uruguay (36), Venezuela (320). These are all used by the military.

Author’s Renditions
Ural 4320
The basic vehicle, in standard configuration & open bay.
Ural 4320 converted as a FAR armored truck - Angola conflict
Angola used thse trucks in the 1980s Angola conflict with south africa, and sub-groups like FAR used them as weapon platforms, usually for ZPU AA mounts, and in this case, a rare armored APC also with a ZPU-2 Mount. Capacity seems to have been ten infantrymen. The engine front, top, and cab are all armored. A spare roadwheel is placed at the rear, one one of the two doors.
BM-21 RL
BM-21 RL
Not done yet
Canvas close cab, 4×4 russian military variant


Lenghtenend 19 Military truck
Lenghtened Ural 4320-19 version
Military logging truck
Armored Ural 4320 with modular trailer
Military logging truck
Cheremushksy’s Ural 4320 6×6-trailer logging truck (Arkhangelsk_Oblast)
Armored model
6×6 armored MRAP/Police model in dislay at Interpolitex 2016, by Vitaly Kuzmin.
Armored model
6×6 4320 VV at Interpolitex
Armored model
6×6 armored cab standard KUNG, returning from a parade on May 9th, 2011 in Moscow. (For all credits : wikimedia commons)
Ural 4320 standard Military truck
Ural 4320 logging truck at Zakarpattya. Notice it’s painted in factory olive green despite its civilian use.

by Roman
on Sketchfab

See also
8×8 Iveco cab Ural 5323 variant:
Modern one on Gazglobal: //
Firetruck: //
On sale: //,-trucks-a-bikes-3/ural-4320-and-ural-5557-138
Sound: //

Cold War Soviet Other Vehicles


USSR (1964)
Rocket tank destroyer – 220 built


During the Cold War, the Soviets began work on two designs for ATGM Raketniy tanks, literally meaning “Rocket Tanks”. One of the vehicles was the IT-1, based on the chassis of the T-62. Its designation was short for ‘Istrebitel Tankov’ (Истребитель Танков), literally ‘Tank Destroyer’, it was also known as the Object 150. Its competition was the Taifun 9M15, or Typhoon, also known as Object 287, based on the T-64.
Both of the vehicles took part in tests in 1964. The Taifun performed badly, its development being subsequently canceled. This cleared the way for the IT-I.
IT-1 promotional photograph - Source: Alternate Wars
IT-1 promotional photograph – Source: Alternate Wars


The hull and engine were taken straight from the T-62, without modification. 220 IT-1 vehicles were built. 60 of these were manufactured by multiple firms. 20 of these were built by the Uralvagonzavod factory in 1970.
The IT-1’s 3-man crew consisted of a driver, a gunner and a commander. The vehicle saw a very limited service between 1968 and 1970 in two battalions of the Carpathian and Belarusian military districts. The IT-1 featured a very unique, “Flattened-dome” turret, which housed its main armament, and a 7.62 mm PKT machine gun with a 2000 round supply.

The Drakon

The 3M7 Drakon missile - Source:
The IT-1’s main armament consisted of a 2KA ATGM launcher firing the PTUR 3M7 “Drakon” missile. The missile was radio-command guided, via the SACLOS (Semi-Automatic Command to Line-Of-Sight) guidance system. It could penetrate 250 mm (9.8 in) of rolled-homogeneous armor, angled at 60 degrees, at ranges up to 3300m.
The T2-PD and UPN-S night-vision equipment theoretically allowed night operation of the missiles. However, the missile’s effective range was substantially reduced in this situation. Day range was 300 to 3300m, night range, however, was a meager 400 to 600m
The firing sequence was thus: A small hatch would open in the roof of the turret. The rail, with the attached missile, would swing forwards. Once locked in position, the folding wings would open, at the same time shedding its protective casing. The missile was launched slightly upward, at an angle, in order to reduce the effect of any wind interference during the early stages of unguided flight. A tracer allowed the guidance system to track and transmit radio commands.
When fired, the guidance system used one of seven frequencies and two codes to prevent other IT-1 unit’s guidance systems interfering with each other’s missiles. There was a slight “dead-zone” around the vehicle, meaning that the missile traveled unguided for a few meters before receiving it’s radio commands.
The vehicle carried fifteen 3M7 Drakon missiles, twelve of which in an automatic loader, three more rounds were placed in an unarmoured container found on the rear of the turret.
The IT-1 in Patriot Park, Kubinka - Credits: Vitally V. Kuzzmin
The IT-1 in profile at Patriot Park, Kubinka. Photo: Vitally V. Kuzzmin

The IT-1 in Patriot Park, Kubinka - Credits: Vitally V. Kuzzmin
The IT-1 at Patriot Park, Kubinka, from the front, displaying its low profile. Photo: Vitally V. Kuzzmin
The IT-1 in Patriot Park, Kubinka - Credits: Vitally V. Kuzzmin
Rear of the IT-1 showing off the famous “Log” at Patriot Park, Kubinka. Photo: Vitally V. Kuzzmin


The 520 kg of guidance equipment required for the missile proved extremely impractical. This, coupled with the limited amount of ammunition carried, made it unpopular with its users.
The vehicle was soon withdrawn from service and the two units using them were disbanded. The IT-1 didn’t go straight to the scrap yard however, the vehicles eventually ended up being converted into the IT-1T partial ARV tractors. The only modifications were the fixed positioning of the turret, and the addition of recovery gear once the ATGM launcher had been removed. They were then converted again into the BTS-4V recovery vehicle.
For a time the vehicle sat in the Kubinka tank museum. It now sits in the Patriot Park at Kubinka.
An article by Mark Nash

IT-1 specifications

Dimensions 6.63 oa x 3.30 x 2.8 m (21’9” x 10’9” x 9’1”)
Total weight, battle ready 35.4 tons
Crew 3 (driver, gunner, commander)
Propulsion V-55A Diesel (580 hp)
Suspension torsion bar
Speed (road) 55 km/h (34.1 mph)
Armament 2K4 ATGM System firing 3M7 “Dragon” ATGM
7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun
Armor Hull: 102/79/46 mm (4.01/3.11/1.81 in)
Turret: 206 mm (8.1 in) at the front, 100 mm (3.93 in) sides and roof
Total production 220


Specifications of Russian missile tanks on the Big Book of Warfare
Information on a preserved IT-1
Missile Tanks on

Soviet Propaganda video showing the IT-1 in testing

Tank Encyclopedia’s own Illustration of the IT-1 by David Bocquelet.