Brazilian armor

VETE T-1 A-1 Cutia Brazil (1965)
Reconnaissance Vehicle – 1 Prototype Built

Up until 1967, Brazil was dependent on foreign countries for armored vehicles. Throughout and in the aftermath of World War 2, Brazil would receive large numbers of cheap armored vehicles from the United States, including the M3 Stuart and the M4 Sherman. In fact, Brazil had not undertaken any tank design since 1932, and those had only been conversions of tractors and cars into armored vehicles during the revolutions of 1924, 1930 and 1932.

Between 1932 and 1958, the Brazilian Armed Forces created a solid basis of technical institutes from which it could educate technical and research personnel, which in turn helped the Brazilian automotive industry in developing their own automotive parts and helped in opening laboratories for the manufacturers. This basis eventually resulted in a mock-up of the VETE T-1 A-1 in 1958, and later, in 1965, a prototype of the very first Brazilian indigenously designed and built armored vehicle meant for serial production. The Brazilian armored vehicle industry was born.


After years of using foreign vehicles and establishing technical institutes for the army, such as the ETE (Escola Técnica do Exército, Army Technical School), which, in 1947, also provided the first specialized course in Industrial and Automotive Engineering in the country, Brazil started designing an armored vehicle. In 1958, 9 third-year students led by Major José Luiz de Castro e Silva, of the earlier mentioned Industrial and Automotive Engineering course, started designing a vehicle based on the French VP-90.

The VP-90 in Saumur. Source:

The VP-90 was a vehicle designed by Victor Bouffort for the French Army in 1952. At that time, French strategists saw use in a fast tankette, and thus, Les Établissements Fouga de Béziers, which proposed the vehicle, delivered a prototype. A VP-90 armed with a 75 mm recoilless rifle was also built, but, by that time, interest in the VP-90 had been lost. The only remaining VP-90 is preserved at the Saumur Tank Museum.

During 1958 and 1959, the Brazilian students developed a concept vehicle and built a mock-up designated VETE-58 (Viature Escola Técnica do Exército de 1958, Vehicle of the Armies Technical School 1958). It was designed to be a high-speed low profile reconnaissance vehicle. Not long after, the concept was improved upon and received a predesignation VETE-T1 Cutia. Cutia was the nickname of the head of the project, Major José Luiz de Castro e Silva. However, at the time, the project would not advance any further.

Photo of the VETE-58 mock-up, released in the Correio da Manhã newspaper on January 11th, 1959. Source: Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos

Various companies were involved in developing the vehicle, but the most important company was FNM (Fábrica Nacional de Motores, National Factory of Engines) which manufactured about 90% of the prototype and provided the raw materials and labor. FNM was founded on June 13th, 1942, during World War 2, with the objective of manufacturing aircraft engines. In 1943, the company started producing Wright engines for the US. Brazil participated in World War 2 as an Allied country and took part in the Battle for the Atlantic and also sent an expeditionary force consisting of around 25,000 men, called the Smoking Snakes, who fought alongside the Americans in Italy. In exchange, the US would help Brazil with industry and equipment, including the capabilities of producing aircraft engines. It was seen as an advantageous contract from both the Brazilian and US perspectives. The Brazilians acquired the engine technology and learned how to manufacture them, while the US would have a supplier of aircraft engines, far away from Europe and Asia. After 1945, the production of aircraft engines was no longer needed and, in 1949, FNM decided to manufacture trucks, becoming the first automotive factory of Brazil.

Interest in the Cutia resurfaced in 1965, and IME continued the development of the 1958 VETE-58 project. A prototype was built under the responsibility of FNM. Eight companies and military institutions would eventually participate in the development of the prototype, each delivering components and design input. The prototype was built on July 13th, 1965.

Company Component(s)
FNM (Fábrica Nacional de Motores) 90% of its manufacture, engine, raw material, and labor
Arsenal de Marinha Cast-iron components
Conjunto Petroquímico da Petrobrás Rubber for the road wheels
Volkswagen Brazil Suspension torsion bars
Metalon S/A Suspension shock absorbers
SKF Brazil Bearings
CSN (Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional) Steel plates and profiles
Rio Motor S/A Technical assistance for the torsion bars

A single prototype was delivered by FNM to the Brazilian Army in the second half of 1965. When it was delivered, it received the official designation VETE T-1 A-1. The plan was for FNM to produce 100 Cutia’s for Brazilian Army units and also develop an APC version and a turreted version armed with an anti-tank gun.

Cutia prototype built by FNM in 1965, note the missing .30 cal machine gun. Source: Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos

The Cutia was released to the public in 1966 and, in the same year, its existence was made public to the United States Army in Volume 46 of Military Review – Professional Journal of the United States Army of July. The prototype was unarmed at first, but would later receive an M1919 .30 caliber machine gun installed on the right side of the vehicle. The later version was the version that was shown to both the public and in Military Review.

The Cutia, as presented in the Military Review journal. Note the camouflage and the machine gun. Source: Military Review – Professional Journal of the United States Army

The VETE T-1 A-1 Cutia in Detail

Advertisement in the Brazilian press on the release of the Cutia in 1966. Source: Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos


The Cutia was a tracked vehicle with an open hull top and was manufactured out of cold folded steel plates and profiles. The crew consisted of either 2 or 4 crew members, depending on if they sat or layed down in the vehicle. The driver was located in the front left of the vehicle and the gunner was located in the front right of the vehicle. Its armor is unknown, as Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos, an expert in Brazilian armored vehicles stated: ‘’it was meant to ‘’protect’’ the crew from distant small-arms fire and shrapnel.’’ The vehicle was 3.6 meters long, 1.85 meters wide, and 1.12 meters tall (11.81 feet x 6.07 feet x 3.67 feet). It weighed 2.7 tonnes (2.98 US tons).

The Cutia, as presented in the Military Museum Conde de Linhares. Note the engine cover that has been opened. Source: Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos

The engine and fuel tank were installed in a simple steel box in the back. The gearbox was located in the front of the vehicle, which meant that the Cutia was effectively cut in half to make room for the driveshaft from the engine to the gearbox. This affected the number of crew members that could have been transported if the gearbox was located in the back of the vehicle. The box could be opened through a hinge mechanism. Furthermore, the vehicle had two headlights, two backlights, and, on the right side, above the headlight, something that resembles a blackout marker.

The rear of the Cutia in the Military Museum Conde de Linhares. Note the bronze plate which lists the names of the students who participated in the project. Source: Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos


The Cutia was powered by a 4-cylinder gasoline engine that delivered 95 hp. This engine was also used in the Alfa Romeo 2000 luxury car, which was manufactured under license by FNM from 1960 to 1968 as the FNM JK, later renamed to FNM 2000, named after the Brazilian president Juscelino Kubitschek. The Cutia had a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) on roads and 50 km/h (31 mph) off-road. The vehicle had a 60 liter (15.85 US gallon) fuel tank and a fuel consumption of 6 km/l (0.4 miles per US gallon), which gave it an operational range of 300 km (185 miles). The exhaust was mounted on the back of the left mudguard.

The 4-cylinder 95 hp gasoline engine, located in the engine compartment. Source:

The driver used a traditional tiller bar configuration to operate the vehicle. Another interesting detail is that the instrument panel for the driver was the same as on the FNM JK. The Cutia had a torsion bar suspension with individual torsion bars for every road wheel. The vehicle had 5 road wheels and 2 return rollers on each side. The track was very narrow.

The inside of the hull, note the tiller bars and the FNM JK instrument panel. The open box in the middle was used to store two boxes of .30 caliber machine gun ammunition. Source: Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos


The Cutia was armed with an M1919 .30 caliber machine gun on the right side of the vehicle. The gunner had a small vision slit above the machine gun. The vehicle had 10 boxes of .30 caliber ammunition with 250 rounds in every box, giving it a total of 2,500 rounds. In addition, it was also armed with a 2.36 inch (60 mm) M9 bazooka and had 8 rockets at its disposal. The rocket launcher was mounted on the back of the right mudguard.


The Cutia was extensively tested by the Brazilian Army. The following deficiencies came to light: the tracks were too narrow, which severely decreased the vehicle’s agility in muddy terrain, making it prone to bog down. The armor was insufficient, the engine and fuel tanks were vulnerable due to the use of gasoline, and the open-top made the crew vulnerable to weapons such as Molotov cocktails or grenades. Combined with the ease of importing US equipment and the low cost of acquiring these vehicles, these flaws would not only cause the cancellation of the Cutia project but also a decreased willingness of the Brazilian authorities to actively develop and fund their own armored vehicles until the 70s, when the costs of indigenous armored vehicle development became more viable compared to foreign vehicles.

The prototype of the Cutia is preserved at the Military Museum Conde de Linhares in Rio de Janeiro.

The Cutia without the machine gun and with 4 crew members. Source:


All in all, the idea behind the Cutia was not a bad idea for Brazil or any other South American country. The specifications for armored vehicles of these countries have mostly been for lighter vehicles to traverse hard accessible terrain. The Argentinian TAM tank is one of these examples. By creating a low-profile vehicle for reconnaissance, the Brazlians, in theory, could have had a reconnaissance vehicle in their army if it did not have the deficiencies it had.

The Cutia must be seen as what it was: a first attempt by an industry which had never designed and built an armored vehicle for serial production to be used by the army. The cooperation between the Brazilian Army and the Brazilian Automotive industry to create the Cutia would prove fundamental in successful future projects of the Brazilian defense industry, like the EE-9 Cascavel and the EE-11 Urutu, which all came from the industry’s humble beginnings of the VETE T-1 A-1 Cutia. It would take until 1980 for Brazil to develop a new light tracked vehicle which was meant to serve as a multipurpose platform, named the EE-T4 Ogum.

An image presenting both a truck and the Cutia built by FNM. Source:[email protected]/33095097566/


The first version of the Cutia without the machine gun.
The Cutia with the machine gun.
Top projection of the Cutia.
Front projection of the Cutia.
The Cutia with a dot and stripe camouflage, based on a picture taken in 1982. The Cutia was painted in this camouflage scheme for a while when it was presented at the museum.
The Cutia painted in a multitone camouflage, this camouflage was shown in Military Review.

VETE T-1 A-1 Cutia Specifications

Dimensions (L-W-H) 3.6 x 1.85 x 1.12 m (11.8 feet x 6.1 feet x 3.7 feet)
Total Weight 2.7 tonnes (3 US tons)
Crew 2 or 4 (Driver, Gunner, 2 Passengers)
Propulsion Alfa Romeo 95 hp 4-Cylinder gasoline engine
Speed 80 km/h (50 mph) (roads), 50 km/h (31 mph) (off-road)
Range 300 km
Armament M1919 .30 caliber machine gun
M9 2.36 (60 mm) inch rocket launcher
Armor Meant to ‘’protect’’ the crew from distant small-arms fire and shrapnel, declared insufficient by the Brazilian Army.
Production 1 prototype
Special thanks to Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos, the leading expert in Brazilian vehicles, please visit his website for further reading on Brazilian vehicles:


Private Correspondence with Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos
Blindados no Brasil, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos, 2011
Cutia, Expedito Carlos Stephani Bastos, 19-5-2004:
Military Review – Professional Journal of the United States Army – Volume 46, July 1966
Recorte Jornal Matéria Caminhão Guerra Chevrolet Gmc Feb

Argentina Cold War

Sherman Repotenciado

Argentinian armor Argentina (1978) – Medium Tank – 120

After World War 2, Argentina decided that buying surplus tanks would be more economical than mass-producing their domestic Nahuel D.L.43 tank. Between 1946 and 1948, Argentina would acquire 360 American-built M4 Shermans from Belgium, of which 206 were Ex-British Sherman Fireflies and 154 were Shermans armed with the 75 mm gun (some sources state a total of 500 tanks). With the arrival of the Sherman tanks, Argentina became the most powerful force in Latin America at that time. The Argentine Shermans would see service in the various coups and uprisings which Argentina suffered throughout the mid-twentieth century.

In the 1960s, Argentina tried to replace its aging Sherman tank fleet. After failing to acquire American M41 Walker Bulldog light tanks, Argentina turned to Europe, where it acquired licenses and tanks from France, such as the AMX-13 light tank and the French CN-105-57 gun. In the 1970s, the Argentine government started the ‘Tanque Argentino Mediano‘ or ‘TAM’ program in order to have a domestically assembled main battle tank instead of light tanks.

In 1978, during the development of the TAM, tensions between Argentina and Chile started to rise because of a border dispute over the Beagle Channel. Realizing the TAM could not be produced in sufficient numbers to match the Chilean M-50s, M-51s and M-60s among others, the Argentine Government decided to rapidly modernize 120 Shermans to the Sherman Repotenciado [trans. repowered] version as a stop-gap solution. The most notable modernization is the greatly increased firepower achieved by mounting a 105 mm gun. Argentina built its own M-51.

A Sherman Repotenciado Reg. EA 01195, gate guardian of La Agrupación de Comunicaciones 601 “Tcnl Higinio Vallejos”, City bell, Province of Buenos Aires in 2016. Photo: Roberdigiorge of Deviant Art


The plans to modernize the Argentinian tank fleet were already around when tensions between Chile and Argentina started rising in 1978. The idea of improving the gun on the Shermans started around the acquirement of the AMX-13 tanks. Argentina ordered a technical commission to do feasibility research on what the most advantageous upgrade in firepower would be. The commission concluded that up-gunning the current fleet of Fireflies with the same 105 mm gun that was mounted on the AMX-13 was the best option. This would limit the logistical burden by standardization of ammunition and it also meant Argentina could manufacture their own canons. All the ammunition on the Repotenciado was compatible with that of the 105 mm armed AMX-13 and the SK-105 Kurassier, which began equipping Argentinian units from 1978 onwards.

Sherman Repotenciado prototype, a Firefly armed with the 105 mm gun Reg. EA010360, location unknown, march 1975. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”

The prototype was delivered in 1975 by Fabrica Militar. It mounted the 105 mm gun and had a Ford GAA V8 gasoline engine. The prototype would mainly function as a testbed for the 105 mm gun as the Sherman Repotenciado brought a considerable amount of additional upgrades over the prototype instead of just a more powerful gun. The Sherman Repotenciado would go into production in 1977.

Not long after the production of the Repotenciado started, it would be kicked into high gear when Chile and Argentina were on the brink of war. Chile had around 50 M-50’s, 150 M-51’s, 60 M41 Walker Bulldogs and was in the process of acquiring the AMX-30. Meanwhile, Argentina owned between 56 and 80 AMX-13/105 tanks and had probably less than 126 75 mm Shermans and 140 Sherman Fireflies. Argentina started to rapidly modernize the Fireflies in order to field a capable armored force against Chile.

The Sherman Repotenciados were modernized from 120 Sherman Fireflies. The Sherman Firefly was the preferred variant for modernization because the internal configuration allowed for easier adoption of the 105 mm ammo racks. Among the changes were an improved running gear, improved tracks, storage baskets on the turret, smoke dischargers, new radios, new engine and the mounting of the 105 mm gun and a counterweight. During 1968, the Argentinians had decided to develop an additional 200 litres fuel tank for their gasoline Shermans, which could be mounted on the back of the turret to increase its operational range. The Argentinians decided to retain this idea by introducing the ability to mount the 200 litre fuel tank, filled with diesel, for the Repotenciado. By adding an extra fuel tank, the Repotenciado could cover more ground with less refueling which was essential for the large areas of Argentina which the tank had to cross.

A Sherman Repotenciado with the extra fuel tank installed on the turret, Reg. unknown, location unknown, date unknown. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”



A 105 mm L44/57 FTR gun produced by Fábrica Militar de Río Tercero. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”

The Sherman Repotenciado was armed with the 105 mm L44/57 FTR gun produced locally at the Fabrica Militar de Río Tercero in the province of Córdoba, which was a copy of the French CN-105-57 gun. The CN-105-57 was mounted on some of the AMX-13 tanks Argentina had bought from France in 1967. The gun had an effective range of 1,500 meters and had multiple types of ammunition at its disposal, being able to fire, on average, 5 rounds per minute. These included a high-explosive (HE) EF FMK-1 shell, the FMK-3 hollow charge shell, with a penetration of 360 mm at a muzzle velocity of 800 m/s, the SCC Mod 1 ES similair to the FMK-3 shell but used for training purposes, and the FMK-5 smoke-illumination shell. The latter could create a smokescreen covering 40 m which could last up to a minute and project a flare ‘package’ 20 m in diameter. Although it did have some issues with the recoil system, the gun was said to be accurate and efficient. The turret was, interestingly enough, quite spacious when compared to the original Sherman Firefly. This is because the breech block of the 105 mm gun is smaller than the 17 pounder.

An interior shot of a Sherman Repotenciado’s turret. Photo: 3-A-202

The turret was reinforced to accommodate the gun and a counterweight was placed to compensate for the extra weight. Furthermore, the aiming system was upgraded along with new sights. Four smoke dischargers were installed on the turret (two on each side) and the Shermans were equipped with 7.62 MAG coaxial machine gun. A 12.7 mm Browning M2HB machine gun was installed on top of the turret. A new gun travel-lock was installed on the mudguards.

A side view of the Sherman Repotenciado Reg. EA 01195. Note the smoke canisters on the side of the turret and the added turret basket. Gate guardian of La Agrupación de Comunicaciones 601 “Tcnl Higinio Vallejos”, City bell, Province of Buenos Aires in 2016. Photo: Roberdigiorge of Deviant Art


The Argentinians also decided they wanted to upgrade the Repotenciado with a more powerful engine. Multiple proposals were made by companies, including a FIAT 221-A V6 diesel engine which was equipped on a dozen regular Argentinian Shermans. Eventually, the decision was made to install the French Poyaud 520 V8 diesel engine which could, depending on sources, deliver 450 hp or 500 hp at 2600 RPM. The Poyaud 520 gave the Sherman Repotenciado a power to weight ratio of either 14 hp/ton or 16 hp/ton, which meant that the Repotenciado had a better power to weight ratio than the Firefly (12 hp/ton).

The tank could reach a top speed of 48-50 km/h. At a lower speed of 20 km/h, it had a fuel consumption of 2.5 liters per kilometer. The fuel tanks on the Repotenciado had a capacity of 604,8 liters and a supplementary tank could be placed at the back of the turret with a capacity of 200 liters. This meant that the tank had an operational range of 322 km (400 km according to some sources) or 240 km depending on if the supplemental fuel tank was used.

The Repotenciado also received nationally produced tracks as an upgrade for better ground resistance, an improved running gear and an improved suspension. According to some sources, the tracks of the Repotenciado had some parts that were interchangeable with the TAM to simplify logistics and production.

The French Poyaud 520 hp V8 diesel engine. Photo: Blindados De Argentine, Uruguay y Paraguay

Hull and Protection

The Repotenciado did not get any upgrades to its armor. Given the mix-match of Shermans used, the Repotenciado had two different hulls. Some were converted from M4A1 tanks with composite hull and others on the M4A4 hull.

However, the hull interior was extensively redesigned. The engine compartment had to be redesigned to fit the new Poyaud 520 engine. Apart from enlarging the engine compartment, a new inspection door and exhaust pipes were designed. The new gun and changes to the hull meant the electronics were changed, and additionally, new intercoms were installed along with an external phone on the back of the hull. For other communications, a Philips VCR 4622 transmitter and a Philips 3620 intercom control system were equipped on the Repotenciado. All these changes meant that the weight of the vehicle rose to 29,66 tonnes and 31,61 tonnes combat-ready.

The Sherman Repotenciado had a crew of 4: a commander, driver, gunner and loader/radio operator.

An M4A4 Sherman Repotenciado, Reg. EA 01195 gate guardian of La Agrupación de Comunicaciones 601 “Tcnl Higinio Vallejos”, City bell, Province of Buenos Aires in 2016. Photo: Roberdigiorge of Deviant Art
An M4 Hybrid Sherman Repotenciado, Reg. EA 09294, gate guardian of La Agrupación de Comunicaciones 601 “Tcnl Higinio Vallejos”, City bell, Province of Buenos Aires in 2016. Photo: Roberdigiorge of Deviant Art


Several Repotenciados have been converted as combat engineering vehicles and have been in service supporting regular Repotenciado and TAM units, among them:

Mine-Clearing Repotenciado

Argentina acquired 8 RKM mine rollers (Urdan) at the beginning of 1978. The mine roller systems appear to be installed exclusively on the M4A1 hulls. The mine rollers severely affected the maximum speed from 50 km/h to 20 km/h. In order to completely clear a path of mines, two sweeps were needed. The first sweep was to detonate the mines that could immobilize the tracks and the second sweep was to clear the middle path of any mines. The mounting system of the Repotenciado is compatible with VCTP of the TAM family. The mine-clearing vehicles are still in service.

Sherman Repotenciado with Urdan mine roller, Regimiento de Caballería de Tanques 1, location unknown, date unknown. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”

Armored Bulldozer Repotenciado

In 1978, Argentina decided to equip a single M4A4 Sherman Repotenciado with a bulldozer. The bulldozer variant was equipped with a dozer blade produced locally at the Talleres Metalúrgicos de Paraná. The tank was meant to serve at the 1st Tank Cavalry Regiment. Whether the bulldozer variant actually saw service and how long is unclear. It is currently on display at the Argentine Army Museum.

Sherman Repotenciado with bulldozer, Regimiento de Caballería de Tanques 1, location unknown, date unknown.


The first 15 Sherman Repotenciados would be delivered on January 31st 1978. On July 9th of that year, the tank was revealed to the public in a parade in which 2 squadrons of the 8th Tank Cavalry Regiment participated. By 1979, the second Armored Cavalry Brigade was fully equipped with Sherman Repotenciados.

An M4A4 Repotenciado during a parade, a soldier greets a child, location unknown, date according to the page 1977 but according to other sources this shouldn’t be possible so it would most likely be 1978. Photo: IG: @ejercito_de_argentina

Diplomatic alternatives for the resolution of the Beagle conflict with Chile failed. Throughout 1978, the Argentinian military junta began mobilizing its military forces, and by the end of the year, was ready to launch ‘Operación Soberanía’, the invasion of Chile. In early October 1978, the 1st Tank Cavalry Regiment was ordered to move from Santa Fe to Punta Quilla and from there a squadron of Shermans was deployed at El Calafete, around 60 kilometers from the Chilean border. Two other squadrons in Esquel were ordered to move to Villa La Angostora, around 20 kilometers from the Chilean border in late October and await further orders. Fortunately, before any blood was spilled, Pope John Paul II intervened and offered to mediate between the two countries. As a result, the invasion was called off and, in 1984, a friendship treaty was signed between the two countries, settling the territorial dispute.

A Sherman Repotenciado of the B squadron, Esquel, July 1978. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”

Because of this, the Sherman Repotenciado never saw service as it was intended. Nonetheless, the vehicle was in service in the Argentinian Army until 1994, by which point the last units were being phased out and its formal retirement would take place in May 1998, when the Sherman Repotenciado with the registration EA0060 fired its cannon for the last time on the Magdalena Shooting range. A total of 67 Shermans would go into storage, with 12 Shermans as reserve per armored cavalry unit, of which one was a mine roller Repotenciado. The Shermans were kept in open air storage. As an attempt to at least preserve the canon, the Argentinians covered up or sometimes screwed off the muzzle brakes of the barrels.

Four years after the official retirement, the Argentinians started to notice premature wear on their TAM vehicles which used the mine rollers. In order to better preserve the VCTP vehicles used for mine clearing, the Argentinians decided to reactivate the Sherman Repotenciado mine roller variant in 2002, the mine-roller variants were well maintained as they never really retired as an engineering vehicle. As of 2002, 67 Sherman Repotenciados remain in storage. Five Repotenciado’s are still in service as so called ‘Historical Vehicles’, for parade and ceremonial purposes, in addition to still being used as mine clearing vehicles in the Argentinian regiments.

An M4A1 Repotenciado used for a ceremony of the 8th Tank Cavalry Regiment. Magdalena Beunos Aires, date unknown. Photo: Guillermo E. Sentis

Continued Service in Paraguay

Paraguay received 3 M4A4 Shermans in 1971 from Argentina, which they would return in 1988 in exchange for three Repotenciados. The Shermans Paraguay received were two M4A4s and one M4A1 Sherman. Their registration numbers were 030-01,02,03 with the M4A1 being 030-02. A Paraguayan general wanted to use the Repotenciados as passive onlookers during his coup in February 1989, but when the government was overthrown on 3rd February 1989, the tanks did not leave their barracks because all the crews were on vacation. The Paraguayan Sherman Repotenciados were retired from service in 2018.

Paraguayan Repotenciado of the Presidential Escort Regiment, Reg. 030-02, location Helio Higuchi in Asunción, date May 2016. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”

The Journey of the Czech Repotenciado

The journey of this particular Sherman Repotenciado started in the Detroit Tank Arsenal in 1943 where it was built. After its construction, it would be shipped to the United Kingdom and converted to a Sherman Firefly. Then, the Sherman would go to Belgium before being sold to Argentina in 1947. In Argentina it would receive the registration EA 03055 and later be converted to a Sherman Repotenciado in 1977. After the Repotenciados were phased out, an Argentinian dealer would acquire this particular vehicle. It was later bought by the KVH 16th Armored Division CZ and transported to the Czechia in 2018 where it would be reconverted to the original M4A4 variant and continue its service as a reenactment tank with the KVH 16th Armored Division CZ.

The Czech Repotenciado on the 4th of May 2018, EA 03055, Czechia exact location unknown. Photo: KVH 16th Armored Division CZ

Conversion and Continued Service With the KVH 16th Armored Division CZ

In 2014, the Czech reenactment club KVH 16th Armored Division CZ discovered a Sherman Repotenciado for sale by an Argentinian dealer. It took three and a half years to finish up the paperwork and the tank would then be transported as a whole to the Czech Republic. The arrival of the Sherman Repotenciado was made public on the 4th of May 2018 on the 16th Armored Division Facebook page.

The Repotenciado was to be reconverted to the original M4A4 with a 75mm gun. The reconversion process would begin on 1st August of that year by removing the gun from the turret and subsequently removing the turret from the hull the day after. The removal of the turret revealed the poor state of the Repotenciado as the bearings and the turret drive gears were rusty and starting to rot away. The poor state of the tank when it was acquired is most likely due to outside storage for years after the Argentinian Army phased out the Repotenciado. Suspension restoration would begin on 17th August and work on the hull would start on 23rd October.

The engine was surprisingly well preserved compared to the turret and repairs would start in February 2019 and were completed in April of the same year. The repaired engine would be placed into the tank in May and the first test drive would be done on 1st August. The conversion was completed on 12th August 2019, and subsequently, the M4A4 would be accepted into service by the 16th Armored division on the same day. The M4A4 would see its first deployment just four days after it was accepted into service on the 2019 Friend Fest in Pardubice, Czechia.

The reconverted M4A4 of the KVH 16th Armored Division CZ, Friend Fest in Pardubice, Czechia, 16th of August 2019.
Photo: KVH 16th Armored Division CZ


Although the Sherman Repotenciado would be woefully inadequate against Western and Russian MBTs of the 1980s, it was adequate in South America. At the time, the most advanced tanks in South America were the M-51’s and 20 AMX-30s from Chile and the SK-105 light tank owned by both Bolivia and Brazil. The Repotenciados gun was powerful enough to fight against all these tanks. The Argentinians managed to further extend the Repotenciados service life by turning some of them in engineering vehicles which is a testament to the longevity and adaptability of the M4 Sherman.

The factory workers could not screw on the muzzle brake far enough to fix it in a horizontal position. Displayed at the Argentine Army Museum in 2006. Reg. 44742, built by Chrysler in October 1943. Photo: Link
An M4A1 Repotenciado during the ‘Monte Caseros’ mutiny of 1988, Monte Caseros, 15th of January 1988. Photo: Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”

A standard Sherman Repotenciado converted from an M4A4 with a turret basket and a 105 mm gun. Converted from the famous World War Two M4 Sherman, 120 Repotenciados were produced. Illustration by Tank Encyclopedia’s own David Bocquelet.

Sherman Repotenciado converted from an M4A4 hull with an external fuel tank.

Sherman Repotenciado EA102264 ‘’Cain’’. Note the mounting point for a mine roller on the front of the vehicle.

Tank Cavalry Regiment ”Colonel Brandsen” / II Armored Cavalry Brigade, 1989. This unit, based in Villaguay (Entre Ríos), had the only Armored bulldozer Repotenciado.

These three illustrations were produced by Pablo Javier Gomez.

Example of a Repotenciado in Paraguayan Service. Illustration by Tank Encyclopedia’s own David Bocquelet.


Dimensions 6 x 2.6 x 2.7 meters
Total weight, battle-ready 31.61 tons
Crew 4 (commander, driver, gunner, loader)
Propulsion Poyaud 520 8-cyl diesel
Maximum speed 48 km/h (30 mph)
Suspension Vertical Volute Springs (VVSS)
Range on road 200km or 280km (124 or 174 miles)
Armament 105 mm (4.13 in) L44/57 FTR
1x 7.62 MAG coacial
1x 12.7 Browning M2HB
Armor Hull: Front 51 mm (2 in)
Side 38.25 mm (1.5 in)
Rear 38.25 mm (1.5 in)
Turret: Front 76.5 mm (3 in)
Side 51 mm (1 in)
Rear 51 mm (1 in)
Total production 120


Sherman Repotenciado links & resources
Blindados De Argentine, Uruguay y Paraguay
Serie Terrestre N°2 “M4 SHERMAN”
El Sherman en el Ejército Argentino
M4 Sherman: Rare Photographs from Wartime Archives
KVH 16th Armored Division

Tank-It Shirt

“Tank-It” Shirt

Chill with this cool Sherman shirt. A portion of the proceeds from this purchase will support Tank Encyclopedia, a military history research project. Buy this T-Shirt on Gunji Graphics!

American M4 Sherman Tank – Tank Encyclopedia Support Shirt

American M4 Sherman Tank – Tank Encyclopedia Support Shirt

Give ’em a pounding with your Sherman coming through! A portion of the proceeds from this purchase will support Tank Encyclopedia, a military history research project. Buy this T-Shirt on Gunji Graphics!